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Biosynthesis of the wall teichoic acid in Bacillus licheniformis.

A common linkage saccharide unit between teichoic acids and peptidoglycan in cell walls of Bacillus coagulans.

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Teichoic and teichuronic acids: biosynthesis, assembly, and location.

Citation Winstel V, Sanchez-Carballo P, Holst O, Xia G, Peschel A. 2014. Biosynthesis of the unique wall teichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus lineage ST395. mBio 5(2):e00869-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.00869-14.

Lipoteichoic acids: a new class of bacterial antigen.

The structural highly diverse wall teichoic acids (WTA) are cell wall-anchored glycopolymers produced by most Gram-positive bacteria. While most of the dominant Staphylococcus aureus lineages produce poly-ribitol-phosphate WTA, the recently described ST395 lineage produces a distinct poly-glycerol-phosphate WTA type resembling the WTA backbone of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Here, we analyzed the ST395 WTA biosynthesis pathway and found new types of WTA biosynthesis genes along with an evolutionary link between ST395 and CoNS, from which the ST395 WTA genes probably originate. The elucidation of ST395 WTA biosynthesis will help to understand how Gram-positive bacteria produce highly variable WTA types and elucidate functional consequences of WTA variation.

inhibitors of wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthesis in ..

The function of galactosyl phosphorylpolyprenol in biosynthesis of lipoteichoic acid in Bacillus coagulans.

Citation Winstel V, Sanchez-Carballo P, Holst O, Xia G, Peschel A. 2014. Biosynthesis of the unique wall teichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus lineage ST395. mBio 5(2):e00869-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.00869-14.

Both TarK and TarL of S. aureus are bifunctional RboP priming and polymerization enzymes, implying that there is active site plasticity. While the CDP-Rbo donor is the same, each activity requires the utilization of a primary hydroxyl acceptor with an α-carbon secondary alcohol of differing stereochemistry (Fig. ). Active site plasticity may explain why lipoteichoic acid, a GroP polyol with different stereochemistry than GroP of the WTA linkage unit (), can serve as an acceptor in vitro but does not occur in vivo due to lipoteichoic acid terminus accessibility (, ).

Biosynthesis of cell wall teichoic acid polymers

The function of beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl monophosphorylundecaprenol in biosynthesis of lipoteichoic acids in a group of Bacillus strains.

It has been suggested that the tarK and tarL genes of S. aureus each have a unique enzymatic activity, namely, RboP priming (TarK) of the linkage unit and the subsequent RboP polymerization (TarL) to complete the teichoic acid chain (). This model was based on the proposed B. subtilis W23 poly-RboP pathway (), although there is limited experimental evidence concerning the enzymes involved in RboP addition for either bacterial strain. The validity of extending the B. subtilis W23 two-enzyme RboP primase-polymerase model to S. aureus has been questioned based on a computational analysis of the gene clusters, which revealed not only different genetic organizations but also an apparent three-gene duplication specific to S. aureus (tarIJK and tarIJL) (Fig. ) (). For the two-enzyme RboP primase-polymerase model to hold true in S. aureus, two proteins, TarK and TarL (80% identity and 90% similarity), would have to catalyze distinct reactions. Qian et al. suggested that different activities were possible given the sequence divergence between the N termini of TarK and TarL (). They also suggested a second possibility, that the two clusters may actually be functionally redundant, which would mean that there is no RboP priming enzyme in the pathway. This study suggests a third scenario, in which both TarL and TarK are indeed bifunctional RboP priming and RboP polymerizing WTA enzymes yet remain functionally nonredundant. We propose that TarL and TarK direct the synthesis of two distinct cell wall WTA polymers (a primary L-WTA and a secondary K-WTA, respectively) in a revised poly-RboP WTA pathway (Fig. ). We further suggest that the sequence divergence in the N termini of TarK and TarL actually reflects different linkage unit substrate specificity and not a shift between RboP priming and polymerization.

N-acetylmannosaminyl(1----4)N-acetylglucosamine, a linkage unit between glycerol teichoic acid and peptidoglycan in cell walls of several Bacillus strains.

Biosynthesis of glucosyl monophosphoryl undecaprenol and its role in lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis.
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  • Teichoic acid occurs in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria

    26/01/2017 · Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria

  • Structure and biosynthesis of teichoic acids in the cell ..

    12/02/2017 · In vitro antimicrobial activity of wall teichoic acid biosynthesis inhibitors ..

  • Wall teichoic acid function, biosynthesis, and inhibition

    29/11/2007 · Late-Stage Polyribitol Phosphate Wall Teichoic Acid Biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus

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Late-Stage Polyribitol Phosphate Wall Teichoic Acid ..

The major clonal lineages of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produce cell wall-anchored anionic poly-ribitol-phosphate (RboP) wall teichoic acids (WTA) substituted with -Alanine and N-acetyl--glucosamine. The phylogenetically isolated S. aureus ST395 lineage has recently been found to produce a unique poly-glycerol-phosphate (GroP) WTA glycosylated with N-acetyl--galactosamine (GalNAc). ST395 clones bear putative WTA biosynthesis genes on a novel genetic element probably acquired from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). We elucidated the ST395 WTA biosynthesis pathway and identified three novel WTA biosynthetic genes, including those encoding an α-O-GalNAc transferase TagN, a nucleotide sugar epimerase TagV probably required for generation of the activated sugar donor substrate for TagN, and an unusually short GroP WTA polymerase TagF. By using a panel of mutants derived from ST395, the GalNAc residues carried by GroP WTA were found to be required for infection by the ST395-specific bacteriophage Φ187 and to play a crucial role in horizontal gene transfer of S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). Notably, ectopic expression of ST395 WTA biosynthesis genes rendered normal S. aureus susceptible to Φ187 and enabled Φ187-mediated SaPI transfer from ST395 to regular S. aureus. We provide evidence that exchange of WTA genes and their combination in variable, mosaic-like gene clusters have shaped the evolution of staphylococci and their capacities to undergo horizontal gene transfer events.

Synonyms: major teichoic acid biosynthesis, ..

This result, together with the behavior of the radioactive polymer in chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B, DEAE-Sephacel, and Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, led to the conclusion that [14C]Glc-P-prenol serves as an intermediate in the formation of beta-D-glucosyl branches on the polymer chains of cell wall teichoic acids in B.

Teichoic acid - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Hydrogen fluoride hydrolysis of the [14C]glucose-linked polymer product yielded a major fragment identical to D-galactosyl-alpha(1----2)(D-glucosyl-beta(1----1/3)) glycerol, the dephosphorylated repeating unit in the major cell wall teichoic acids of these B.

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