the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis ..
Argus II Retinal Prosthesis
approved the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, ..
At the workshop, Mark Humayun was a graduate student in biomedical engineering at the University of North Carolina and an ophthalmology resident at Duke University. He had already been working on this project since 1987, and engineers were designing the earliest prototype. I was a retina fellow at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at UCLA. As a resident, I had also developed the idea of creating a subretinal or epiretinal prosthetic. My colleagues and professors considered my idea eccentric. (I think they actually thought I was nuts!)
It’s all thanks to a retinal prosthesis system called Argus II, one of the high-tech tools developed partly through the at Keck School of Medicine of USC.
Retinal prosthesis shows promise in restoring sight | USC …
As a result of the natural extension of this smart skin technology to the retinal prosthesis, a close collaboration between my lab and Dr. Mark Humayun’s lab at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (Doheny Eye Institute) has been formed (part of the NSF-funded USC/Caltech/UCSC Biomimetic MicroElectronic Systems Engineering Research Center). The long-term goal for my lab is to produce a totally integrated retinal prosthesis that contains a power-delivery secondary coil, a power-and-signal management system-on-a-chip (SoC), and a flexible high-density retinal electrode array. Although this project is just in its initial stages, there have already been two major advancements. The first is the completion of a biocompatibility experiment in which unmodified parylene, the major component of the proposed retinal prosthesis, was placed in the intraocular space of an eye for six months. Our experiments showed that parylene did not cause an immune or foreign-body response for the duration of this implantation. The second is that we have successfully produced flexible gold/parylene 16 x 16 electrode arrays that are currently undergoing soak tests in saline solution.
Now new devices and treatments are countering once-incurable eye diseases. The world’s first retinal prosthesis and artificial retina, Argus I (manufactured by ), was researched and developed by , USC professor of ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, and cell and neurobiology, who first implanted it in patients in a clinical trial in 2002. The updated version, Argus II, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients in 2013. The device provides limited but useful vision to patients with retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited degenerative disease that affects the light-sensing cells of the retina.
USC honors Humayun for retinal prosthesis | HSC News
The retinal prosthesis uses a camera mounted on glasses that sends a wireless signal to an electronic receiver with 60 electrodes implanted in and around the eye. The electrodes send controlled electrical pulses to stimulate the remaining neurons in the otherwise blind retina. Wearers can make out large objects and see light and dark. In the next generation, the 6-by-10-pixel grid will likely grow to 12 by 20 pixels, adding further clarity to the picture.
Retinal prostheses can particularly benefit from this approach given their challenging requirements. Instead of a single large chip, many micro-size low-cost chips are distributed over a flexible biocompatible thin film substrate along with the electrodes. Electrodes are micro-manufactured on the top surface of the film in a sub-array fashion. Each sub-array is connected to a microchip by parallel micro-manufactured electrical wires on the film. Power and ground are distributed via such wires avoiding sharp folds. The origami design will place chips facing each other across the fold and wireless (proximity) chip-to-chip communication can be used to reduce reliance on electrical wires . As shown in figure below, when inside the eye, the origami implant will take a curved shape to conform to the shape of the retina improving electrode contact for effective stimulation . The location of the chips and electrodes can be optimized through the design of the origami structure. This high-performance system will achievethe following goals: allows minimally invasive surgery, closely apposes electrodes to the retina, places all components within the eye, reduces the interconnect cable density, and enhances the yield and reliability of the system.
The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System - ScienceDirect
The Argus ® II Retinal Prosthesis System ..
Argus retinal prosthesis, ..
Doheny Eye Institute Develops Next-Generation Retinal Prosthesis
The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis system is the first FDA-approved implanted electronic device to re-establish ..
Retinal Implant | USC Visual Processing Labratory | USC
Retinal Prosthesis Testbed
USC Visual Processing Labratory
A fully intraocular high-density self-calibrating epiretinal prosthesis in 65nm CMOS has been developed. It provides charge-balanced stimulation with highly flexible waveforms. It features dual-band telemetry for power and data, on-chip rectifier and clock recovery, a digital calibration technique to match biphasic stimulation currents, and 512 independent channels capable of arbitrary waveform generation. This project is a collaborative effort with the support of NSF and USC's BMES-ERC (Biomimetic Microelectronic Systems - Engineering Research Center).
supported the work at Second Sight, USC, ..
Blending science, health, technology and research was key to developing the complex retinal prosthesis, and USC researchers aren’t stopping there. One project in development takes a complementary approach to wearable visual aids. It uses a wearable computer that can interpret the visual information captured by several miniature cameras mounted on a pair of glasses.
FDA Approves World's First Artificial Retina
1. Humayun MS, de Juan Jr E, Sato Y, Propst R, Timmins M, Venkatasubramarian R, Phillips H; Duke Eye Center. Intraocular Retinal Microstimulator [poster]. Presented at: National Institutes of Health 21st Annual Neural Prosthesis Workshop, October 17-19, 1990, Bethesda, MD.
Retinal Implant Wins FDA Approval | USC
On February 14, 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, the first implanted device to treat adults with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development of a retinal implant was the brainchild of ASRS Executive Committee and Board Member Mark S. Humayun, MD, PhD, who has devoted 25 years to its research and development.
14/02/2013 · Retinal Implant Wins FDA Approval
2. Foxman BT; Jules Stein Eye Institute. Rationale for the Development of an Intraocular Visual Prosthesis [poster]. Presented at: National Institutes of Health 21st Annual Neural Prosthesis Workshop, October 17-19, 1990, Bethesda, MD.
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