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Regulation of Tryptophan Biosynthesis | Annual Review …

Regulation of enzyme synthesis in the tryptophan pathway of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

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Regulation of Tryptophan Biosynthesis

The tryptophan biosynthesis gene cluster trpCDEGFBA from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 is regulated at the transcriptional level and expressed as a single mRNA.

Regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg.

BACKGROUND: The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase (IDO) is one of two mammalian enzymes, which can catabolize the rarest essential amino acid, tryptophan. IDO is inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma and plays a role in inflammation and maternal tolerance of fetal allografts, although its exact mode of action is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the circumstances under which IDO is expressed in vitro together with the effects of overexpression of IDO on the growth and morphology of cells. RESULTS: Overexpression of IDO in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and the murine fibrosarcoma cell line MC57, resulted in the growth of macroscopic cell foci, with altered cell adhesion properties. The expression of IDO was also detected during adhesion of wild type, nontransfected cells in tissue culture to standard cell growth substrates. Inhibition of this expression, likewise resulted in alterations in cell adhesion. Overexpression of IDO or inhibition of endogenous IDO expression was accompanied by changes in metalloproteinase expression and also in the expression and activity of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the case of RAW cells, IDO effects on cell growth could be reversed by adding back prostaglandins. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that catabolism of the rarest essential amino acid may regulate processes such as cell adhesion and prostaglandin synthesis.

Comparative studies on the regulation of tryptophan synthesis

N2 - BACKGROUND: The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase (IDO) is one of two mammalian enzymes, which can catabolize the rarest essential amino acid, tryptophan. IDO is inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma and plays a role in inflammation and maternal tolerance of fetal allografts, although its exact mode of action is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the circumstances under which IDO is expressed in vitro together with the effects of overexpression of IDO on the growth and morphology of cells. RESULTS: Overexpression of IDO in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and the murine fibrosarcoma cell line MC57, resulted in the growth of macroscopic cell foci, with altered cell adhesion properties. The expression of IDO was also detected during adhesion of wild type, nontransfected cells in tissue culture to standard cell growth substrates. Inhibition of this expression, likewise resulted in alterations in cell adhesion. Overexpression of IDO or inhibition of endogenous IDO expression was accompanied by changes in metalloproteinase expression and also in the expression and activity of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the case of RAW cells, IDO effects on cell growth could be reversed by adding back prostaglandins. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that catabolism of the rarest essential amino acid may regulate processes such as cell adhesion and prostaglandin synthesis.

AB - BACKGROUND: The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase (IDO) is one of two mammalian enzymes, which can catabolize the rarest essential amino acid, tryptophan. IDO is inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma and plays a role in inflammation and maternal tolerance of fetal allografts, although its exact mode of action is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the circumstances under which IDO is expressed in vitro together with the effects of overexpression of IDO on the growth and morphology of cells. RESULTS: Overexpression of IDO in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and the murine fibrosarcoma cell line MC57, resulted in the growth of macroscopic cell foci, with altered cell adhesion properties. The expression of IDO was also detected during adhesion of wild type, nontransfected cells in tissue culture to standard cell growth substrates. Inhibition of this expression, likewise resulted in alterations in cell adhesion. Overexpression of IDO or inhibition of endogenous IDO expression was accompanied by changes in metalloproteinase expression and also in the expression and activity of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the case of RAW cells, IDO effects on cell growth could be reversed by adding back prostaglandins. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that catabolism of the rarest essential amino acid may regulate processes such as cell adhesion and prostaglandin synthesis.

Role for tryptophan in regulation of protein synthesis …

Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that the brain produces from tryptophan contained in foods such as “clams, oysters, escargots, octopus, squids, banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, turkey”, spinach, and eggs (1). Functions of serotonin include the regulation of sleep, appetite, and impulse control. Increased serotonin levels are related to mood elevation. Wurtman and Wurtman (1989) developed a theory suggesting that a diet rich in carbohydrates can relieve depression and elevate mood in disorders such as carbohydrate craving obesity, pre-menstrual syndrome, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (5). They theorized that increased patients’ carbohydrate intake associated with these disorders represented self-medicating attempts and that carbohydrates increased serotonin synthesis. A protein rich diet, in contrary, decreases brain serotonin levels.

We present an analysis of the expression of the trpE gene and the trpFBA operon in the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The catalytic activity of component I of anthranilate synthase, the product of the trpE gene, was efficiently inhibited by tryptophan, the end product of the pathway, which suggests that tryptophan biosynthesis is likely controlled at the pathway level in C. crescentus. However, trpFBA mRNA levels and trpE enzyme levels did not vary significantly in wild-type C. crescentus in response to the presence of tryptophan in the growth medium or to growth in minimal versus rich medium. This lack of regulation of the trpE, trpF, trpB, and trpA genes is consistent with the idea that oligotrophic bacteria, such as C. crescentus, do not utilize regulatory mechanisms that greatly alter the biosynthetic capabilities in exponentially growing cells. In contrast, mRNA levels from the 5'-untranslated region and the upstream gene (usg) coding region increased dramatically in C. crescentus trpD or hisB auxotrophs starved for tryptophan or histidine, respectively. Surprisingly, concomitant increases in mRNA levels were not detected from the trpF, trpB, or trpA coding regions downstream in the operon. Thus, severe starvation of C. crescentus for amino acids appears to elicit a strong, general transcriptional response that is not observed in bacteria growing exponentially in medium lacking amino acids.

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