The molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis by F1F0 …
CiteSeerX — Optimal Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms …
{Optimal Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms …
Abstract: Investigation on overconstrained mechanisms needs attention especially in thestructural synthesis. Knowing overconstrained conditions and including them in thedesign process will help creating manipulators with less degree of freedom (DoF) and more rigidity. Also this knowledge of overconstrained conditions will clarify concept of mobility of the parallel manipulators. Another subject, kinematic synthesis of overconstrained mechanisms, is important because it will allow describing a function,path, or motion with less DoF less number of joints. The aim of this thesis is to describe a generalized approach for structural synthesis and creation of new overconstrained manipulators and to describe a potentially generalizable approach for function andmotion generation synthesis of overconstrained mechanism. Moreover, screw theory is investigated as a mathematical base for defining kinematics of overconstrained mechanisms. Also, overconstrained mechanisms are investigated and generation of new mechanisms is introduced with examples. Some mathematical models for the subspace geometries are given. A method for defining overconstrained simple structural groups is introduced and extended to design of manipulators with examples and solid drawings. Linear approximation and least squares approximation methods are used for the function generation and motion generation of overconstrained 6R mechanisms. A gap of describing overconstrained manipulators is filled in the area of structural synthesis. A general methodology is described for structural synthesis, mobility and motion calculations of overconstrained manipulators using simple structural groups. A potentially generalizable method for the kinematic synthesis of overconstrained manipulators is described both for function and motion generation.
By solving the optimization problem, the type and dimension of a planar fourbar mechanism can be obtained simultaneously for a function generation synthesis.
Optimal Synthesis of a Planar Reactionless ThreeDegree …
The MATLAB command 'fsolve' is used to solve the set of nonlinear equations and provide the optimal dimensions of the planar mechanism Last modified: 20150709 14:54:18
The paper presents an approach for the synthesis of three types of planar mechanisms fulfilling the requirements for stroke, time ratio and transmission angle.
Automated Kinematic Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms …
AB  An approach to concurrent type and dimensional synthesis of planar mechanisms is presented. Using graphtheoretic enumeration of mechanisms and determination of loops, automatic loop closure equations are generated. Using constrained optimization routines based on descent methods, and given an appropriate goal function, optimal mechanism designs can be determined. These are not limited to traditional problems such as rigidbody guidance and path generation, but can be more flexibly expressed according to designer needs. This method can be effective at finding mechanism solutions when topology has not been determined a priori and may also be extensible to synthesis of spatial mechanisms. This paper presents the data flow and algorithm outline, simulation results, and examples of nonstandard synthesis problems solvable with this method.
N2  An approach to concurrent type and dimensional synthesis of planar mechanisms is presented. Using graphtheoretic enumeration of mechanisms and determination of loops, automatic loop closure equations are generated. Using constrained optimization routines based on descent methods, and given an appropriate goal function, optimal mechanism designs can be determined. These are not limited to traditional problems such as rigidbody guidance and path generation, but can be more flexibly expressed according to designer needs. This method can be effective at finding mechanism solutions when topology has not been determined a priori and may also be extensible to synthesis of spatial mechanisms. This paper presents the data flow and algorithm outline, simulation results, and examples of nonstandard synthesis problems solvable with this method.
Optimal Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms via an ..

Optimal synthesis of a planar fourlink mechanism used …
11/09/2017 · Key words: Planar mechanism PSO algorithm Path generation Optimal Synthesis

Synthesis Method of Planar Mechanisms Approximating …
01/05/2015 · Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms, Part II: ..

Synthesis of planar mechanisms, Part VIII: five bar mechanism
a procedure for the optimal synthesis of planar mechanisms based on nonlinear position problems.
Type Synthesis of Planar Mechanisms using Topology as an ..
It supports image saving to PICT files and colour printing through thestandard Apple printing mechanism.
It also has the ability to geometrically morph between any two terrainmodels, images or models can be automatically exported and formed intoanimation sequences.FracHill was primarily written as a creator of terrain models for other 3D modelling and rendering packages and thus providesthe ability to export the land surface in a number of CAD formats so that itcan be imported into 3D modelling packages.
At the time of writing it exports to the following file formats
The following shows a terrain surface at various grid resolutions from 2x2 to32x32.
In addition to wireframe views, FracHill performs other types of renderingincluding
Some examples directly from FracHill are shown below
A well known artefact (bug) with terrains generated this way is theappearance of "seams" or "creases".
Synthesis of planar fourbar linkage mechanism.
In 1904, Christian Bohr discovered that increasedconcentrations of CO_{2} and H^{+} promote therelease of O_{2} from hemoglobin in the blood. Thisphenomenon, known as the Bohr effect, is a highly adaptivefeature of the body's bloodgas exchange mechanism. The bloodthat is pumped from the heart to the body tissues and organs(other than the lungs) is rich in oxygen (Figure 7). Thesetissues require oxygen for their metabolic activities (e.g.,muscle contraction). Hence, it is necessary for oxygen to remainbound to hemoglobin as the blood travels through the arteries (sothat it can be carried to the tissues), but be easily removablewhen the blood passes through the capillaries feeding the bodytissues. CO_{2} and H^{+} are produced frommetabolic activities of the body, and so the concentration ofthese species is high in the metabolically active tissues of thebody. Thus, the tissues that perform the most metabolic activity(and therefore require the largest amount of O_{2})produce large quantities of CO_{2} and H^{+},facilitating the release of O_{2} from the blood wherethe O_{2} is most needed. In the lungs, the reverseeffect occurs: high concentrations of O_{2} cause therelease of CO_{2} from hemoglobin.
kinematics and design of planar mechanisms  …
Abstract: In this study, novel parallel manipulators are introduced for industrial and medical applications. New methods are developed for the structural synthesis of Euclidean platform robotmanipulators with variable general constraints (EPRM). New mechanical structures such as serial, parallel and serialparallel EPRM are designed along with proposed method. A new dimensional synthesis method of two DoF planar and spherical seven link mechanisms is presented. Interpolation and least square approximations are used to design the mechanism. In the solution of dimensional synthesis problems, nonlinear equations are converted to system of linear equations. The motion generation problem of a 3 DoF platform robot manipulator is solved for three, four and five precision poses. It is shown that the synthesis problem can be solved analytically for three prescribed poses. However, the solution is achieved by using a numerical method for four and five poses. The result, which is obtained from three prescribed poses, is used as an initial guess for four and five poses. Kinematic analysis of the manipulators is investigated. After the derivation of vectorloop equations, inverse and direct position analyses of the manipulators are presented. Constant orientation workspace of a three DoF spatial parallel manipulator is presented. The mechanical elements which are necessary for the construction of manipulators are introduced. The information about the motors which is needed for actuation of manipulators is given. Three DoF parallel manipulator is constructed for a industrial packaging system. Assembly of manufactured parts and mechanical elements are shown.