the AmVeh developers converted an LPG-gasoline bi-fuel engine, ..
A fuel pump transfers fuel from the tank to the engine's fuel injection system via the fuel line.
for using synthesis gas as fuel.
A metal tube or flexible hose (or a combination of these) allows for transfering natural gas from the tank to the engine's fuel injection system.
The RDC™ drive controls a rotary die cutter for corrugated, paper, and other nonmetallic web applications. Specifically engineered die cutter application software embedded within the drive eliminates the need for an external controller. When used in conjunction with a programmable logic controller (PLC), the drive forms a powerful automation work cell that can be easily integrated with other Unico automation cells to build a complete processing line control system. The drive can also be configured to stand alone with discrete I/O and a dedicated HMI. Embedded control reduces system complexity while taking full advantage of the exceptional performance, flexibility, and ease of use of Unico drives.
carbon-based fuel and converts it into a usable synthesis gas, ..
Vehicular pollution is based on the quality and quantity of the fuel. The need to improve the security of the energy supply and to reduce the emissions of pollutant gases has led the many countries to propose the introduction of alternative fuels in the road transport sector. The DME spray characteristics and combustion process have been investigated for various fuel-injection equipments, in a variety of prototype engines with occasional slight modifications. These engine tests with DME proved its potential as a clean alternative fuel achieving smoke-free high power operation provided optimized fuel injection equipment and the engine configuration are closely matched to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Optimisation of the fuel injection equipment, overcoming the problem of low density, low lubricity and corrosiveness are recognized as technological barriers for mass production of the DME-fuelled compression-ignition engines. However, use of DME as an additive fuel with diesel fuel satisfies the requirement of environmentally safe and renewable new kind of alternative fuel.
Numerous investigations of DME-fuelled engines have indicated that it offers excellent promise as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition operation in the automotive sector. DME is a liquefied gas that can be produced from a variety of feed stock, is non-toxic and environmentally benign. DME is as easy to handle as LPG since it is condensed by pressurizing above 0.5 MPa. DME’s main feature as an efficient alternative fuel for use in compression-ignition engines is its high cetane number. The fast evaporation of DME can lead to better mixing with air in the engine cylinder and its high oxygen content can achieve smokeless combustion through low formation and high oxidation rates of particulates. However, in order to achieve an equivalent driving range as that of a diesel fuel, a DME fuel storage tank must be twice the size of a conventional diesel fuel tank due to the lower energy density of DME compared with diesel fuel. DME-fuelled systems also need lubricity-enhancing additives and anti-corrosive sealing materials to secure leakage-free operation. Moreover, it is argued that the well-to-wheels energy efficiency and CO2 emissions for DME produced from natural gas are not better than for most other fuels, as a result of the high fuel production energy and relevant CO2 emissions, and that diesel fuel has the highest well-to-wheels energy efficiency. Nevertheless, DME has the advantage that it can be produced from both fossil and renewable resources.
In diesel engine: Fuel for diesels; gas oil
Heat and pressure-based chemical reactions that produce energy. Through gasification (heating biomass by partial oxidation to produce synthesis gas) and pyrolysis (heating biomass in the absence of oxygen to produce liquid oil), biomass feedstocks can be converted to alcohol and hydrocarbon fuels, chemicals, and power.
NOx: Comparative values of NOx emissions from DME CI engines and those from diesel fuel seem to vary depending on the engine conditions and the fuel supply system. NOx was found to be lower with DME than with diesel fuel which is attributed to the shorter ignition delay for DME than for diesel, the smaller amount of fuel injected during the ignition delay period and the smaller amount of fuel burned during the pre-mixed burning phase. However, it is possible that higher NOx can be produced from DME than from diesel fuel for an early start of injection since the duration of the peak combustion temperature would be longer in the initial combustion period due to the shorter ignition delay of DME.
Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary
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An outline of GE's Jenbacher gas engines that are known for fuel efficiency and robust performance on difficult gases.
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derived synthesis gas as fuel
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Effect of Load Level on the Performance of a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Syngas Fuels ..
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iv. Leakage: Due to its low viscosity, currently available fuel-injection systems are not suitable for DME due to leakage problems. Even at atmospheric conditions the leakage of DME can be significant in regions of small clearance such as between the plunger and barrel of a rotary-type fuel-injection system. In heavy-duty engines, leakage along the plungers is more serious than in light-duty engines.
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Reduces and regulates the pressure of the fuel exiting the tank, lowering it to an acceptable level required by the engine 's fuel injection system.
Biofuels - Biofuel Information - Guide to Biofuels
The most challenging aspects of a DME engine are related to its physical properties and not to its combustion characteristics. Lower viscosity causes leakage from the fuel supply system. There are also lubrication issues with DME; resulting in premature wear and eventual failure of pumps and fuel injectors. The disadvantages with DME fuel has been highlighted below:
Reduce Climate Change - Fuel Economy
iv. Low injection pressure: DME gasifies immediately during injection, due to its low boiling point, even though it is injected as a liquid. Therefore, the high fuel injection pressures, such as 50–150 MPa, used in modern diesel injection systems are not required for DME.
The Failing Heart — An Engine Out of Fuel — NEJM
DME has a high cetane number which is appropriate for auto-ignition. DME has no carbon–carbon bond and has high oxygen content which significantly reduces smoke formation from combustion. The engine combustion noise is lower than that of diesel engine and DME can be made from various resources, such as coal, natural gas etc. The various advantages of DME as an alternative fuel for CI engine can be summarized as follows:
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