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BIOSYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL: CONDENSATION: In three steps, ..

The following steps are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis: Cholesterol biosynthesis steps in

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Principal steps involved in the biosynthesis ..

Effect of high levels of glucose onthe expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesisin rat islets in vitro. Isolated islets were incubated at3.3 (3.3G) or 16.7 (16.7G) mmol/l glucose for 24 h. (A) The mRNAexpression levels of nine genes involved in cholesterolbiosynthesis were detected by quantitative polymerase chainreaction (qPCR). (B) The expression level of the3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) protein wasdetected by western blot analysis. Data are expressed as mean ±standard error of the mean for three separate experiments.*P

15/03/2013 · The key steps of cholesterol biosynthesis blocked by ..

Dose-dependent effects of high levelsof glucose on the expression levels of genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets. Following isolation, therat islets were incubated with 3.3, 8.3, 11.1 or 16.7 mmol/lglucose and the expression levels of mRNA of (A)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (Hmgcs1), (B)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), (C)isopentenyl-diphosphate δ-isomerase 1 (Idi1), (D) squaleneepoxidase (Sqle), (E) mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (Mvd),(F) 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7) and (G) sterolregulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp 1) were detected byquantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Data are presentedas mean ± standard error of the mean. *P

enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in ..

Answer to Mevalonic acid is involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol

Dose-dependent effects of high levelsof glucose on the expression levels of genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets. Following isolation, therat islets were incubated with 3.3, 8.3, 11.1 or 16.7 mmol/lglucose and the expression levels of mRNA of (A)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (Hmgcs1), (B)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), (C)isopentenyl-diphosphate δ-isomerase 1 (Idi1), (D) squaleneepoxidase (Sqle), (E) mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (Mvd),(F) 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7) and (G) sterolregulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp 1) were detected byquantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Data are presentedas mean ± standard error of the mean. *P

Dose-dependent effects of high levelsof glucose on the expression levels of genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets. Following isolation, therat islets were incubated with 3.3, 8.3, 11.1 or 16.7 mmol/lglucose and the expression levels of mRNA of (A)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (Hmgcs1), (B)3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), (C)isopentenyl-diphosphate δ-isomerase 1 (Idi1), (D) squaleneepoxidase (Sqle), (E) mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (Mvd),(F) 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7) and (G) sterolregulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp 1) were detected byquantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Data are presentedas mean ± standard error of the mean. *P

are therefore key steps involved in cholesterol ..

in the lanosterol-14α-demethylase CYP51 or a related gene involved in cholesterol biosynthesis ..

Effect of high levels of glucose onthe expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesisin rat islets in vitro. Isolated islets were incubated at3.3 (3.3G) or 16.7 (16.7G) mmol/l glucose for 24 h. (A) The mRNAexpression levels of nine genes involved in cholesterolbiosynthesis were detected by quantitative polymerase chainreaction (qPCR). (B) The expression level of the3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) protein wasdetected by western blot analysis. Data are expressed as mean ±standard error of the mean for three separate experiments.*P

As a main source for precursors (includingacetyl-CoA), glucose has notable long-term actions on the biosynthesis of lipids (). Numerous studies investigating thelink between chronic high levels of glucose and pancreatic β-celllipid biosynthesis have focused on fatty acids (FAs). Chronic highlevels of glucose markedly enhance the gene expression levels ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase and induce fatty acid synthesis in pancreatic β cells (–).In the present study, the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgcs1, Hmgcr, Mvd, Idi1,Sqle and Dhcr7) were significantly increased in islets treated withhigh levels of glucose. These results were further confirmed inislets isolated from rats subjected to 12, 24, 48 and 72 hcontinuous glucose infusion. This suggests that high levels ofglucose may enhance cholesterol biosynthesis in the islets throughincreasing the gene expression levels of associated enzymes.

Theoretical assessment of the mechanisms involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol
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  • Bile Acid Synthesis, Metabolism and Biological Functions

    Synthesis of cholesterol and ergesterol involves more than 20 steps and a ..

  • Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization

    Sources of cholesterol

  • The end products of cholesterol utilization are the bile acids

    Cholesterol is derived from

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Flavonoid biosynthesis in plants: genes and enzymes

To identify the specific targets responsible for theadaptation to high levels of glucose, the differentially expressedgenes from primary rat islets treated with 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucosefor 24 h were detected by a whole-genome DNA microarray. Among atotal of 44,000 probe sets, 894 genes were upregulated by highlevels of glucose, revealing changes of ≥2-fold. GO analysis wasused to identify the underlying biological themes in the genes inresponse to treatment with high levels of glucose. As shown in, seven genes, termed inthe gene ontology as ‘cholesterol biosynthetic process’ (GO:0006695), were significantly upregulated in group treated with highlevels of glucose. The qPCR results for Hmgcs1, Hmgcr, Mvd, Idi1,Sqle and Dhcr7 confirmed the genomic analyses, whereas those forFdft1 did not (). Hmgcr, therate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes thesynthesis of mevalonate from hydroxymethyl glutaric acid acylcoenzymeA. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein levelsof Hmgcr (). When combined,these data demonstrate that high levels of glucose markedlyincreased the expression levels of various genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets.

High Cholesterol, APOE Gene and Diet - GB HealthWatch

To identify the specific targets responsible for theadaptation to high levels of glucose, the differentially expressedgenes from primary rat islets treated with 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucosefor 24 h were detected by a whole-genome DNA microarray. Among atotal of 44,000 probe sets, 894 genes were upregulated by highlevels of glucose, revealing changes of ≥2-fold. GO analysis wasused to identify the underlying biological themes in the genes inresponse to treatment with high levels of glucose. As shown in, seven genes, termed inthe gene ontology as ‘cholesterol biosynthetic process’ (GO:0006695), were significantly upregulated in group treated with highlevels of glucose. The qPCR results for Hmgcs1, Hmgcr, Mvd, Idi1,Sqle and Dhcr7 confirmed the genomic analyses, whereas those forFdft1 did not (). Hmgcr, therate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes thesynthesis of mevalonate from hydroxymethyl glutaric acid acylcoenzymeA. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein levelsof Hmgcr (). When combined,these data demonstrate that high levels of glucose markedlyincreased the expression levels of various genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets.

APOE4 carriers are prone to high cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease

To identify the specific targets responsible for theadaptation to high levels of glucose, the differentially expressedgenes from primary rat islets treated with 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucosefor 24 h were detected by a whole-genome DNA microarray. Among atotal of 44,000 probe sets, 894 genes were upregulated by highlevels of glucose, revealing changes of ≥2-fold. GO analysis wasused to identify the underlying biological themes in the genes inresponse to treatment with high levels of glucose. As shown in, seven genes, termed inthe gene ontology as ‘cholesterol biosynthetic process’ (GO:0006695), were significantly upregulated in group treated with highlevels of glucose. The qPCR results for Hmgcs1, Hmgcr, Mvd, Idi1,Sqle and Dhcr7 confirmed the genomic analyses, whereas those forFdft1 did not (). Hmgcr, therate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes thesynthesis of mevalonate from hydroxymethyl glutaric acid acylcoenzymeA. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein levelsof Hmgcr (). When combined,these data demonstrate that high levels of glucose markedlyincreased the expression levels of various genes involved incholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets.

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