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Sodium ethoxide is commonly used in the Claisen condensation and malonic ester synthesis
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As for the electrolyte, in this case, I used a saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride, which was prepared by dissolving 350 grams of NaCl in one liter of distilled water. The solution was heated slowly in order to speed up the dissolution. It is a good idea to add a bit of potassium dichromate to the electrolyte (about 6 grams per 1 liter of electrolyte), in order to reduce the corrosion of the cathodes. When the mentioned compound is added, during the process of electrolysis, around the cathodes hydrated chromium oxides are formed. These oxides protect the cathodes additionaly from chlorate and hypochlorite ions. However, because of the unavailability and the fact that this compund isn't really necessary, I did not add any of this compound. In addition, potassium dichromate is known to be carcinogenic, and that is another good and clear reason to avoid this compound.
Sodium ethoxide is a stable chemical compound. However, it is highly unstable and will react violently if it comes in contact with acids, water or moisture, chlorinated solvents, air, dust and light. Sodium ethoxide is highly flammable. It is a hygroscopic chemical compound, which means that it is sensitive to air, moisture or light. It is therefore advisable to keep Sodium ethoxide away from open flames or anything that might cause sparks and causes the chemical to catch fire. In case there is a fire, dry chemical powders may be used to extinguish small fires and a spray for a large fire.
Claisen Condensation - Organic Chemistry Portal
When sodium is added to ethanol, the chemical reaction produces hydrogen gas which forms bubbles and leaves a sodium ethoxide solution. Sodium ethoxide is a form of an alkoxide. The solution of sodium ethoxide in ethanol is colorless. Sodium ethoxide when added to water reacts to form ethyl alcohol or ethanol.
In severe cases, it may also lead to death.In case there is a contact of this chemical with the physical body, adequate care should be taken to avoid any serious health troubles. If the eyes come in contact with sodium ethoxide, the eyes should be washed rigorously with clean water for several minutes and a doctor is to be consulted just to be on the safe side.
Acetoacetic-Ester Condensation Claisen Condensation
In case there is a contact of this chemical with the physical body, adequate care should be taken to avoid any serious health troubles. If the eyes come in contact with sodium ethoxide, the eyes should be washed rigorously with clean water for several minutes and a doctor is to be consulted just to be on the safe side.
This method of potassium chlorate synthesis is used in the industry for the mass production of the mentioned compound. The process is based on the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The product of this reaction is sodium chlorate. After that, via the process of ion exchange between potassium chloride and sodium chlorate, one can obtain potassium chlorate, and sodium chloride. This step is also used in the thermal decomposition method. As an electrolyte, one can also use solutions of other metallic chlorides (for example, barium or potassium chloride). However, using sodium chloride has its advantages - for example, the product (sodium chlorate) is much more soluble in water than barium or potassium chlorate. Because of that, after the reaction of electrolysis is finished, the product is completely dissolved, and that makes filtration of the electrolyte easier, because by filtration one can remove all impurities without removing some of the desired product as well. As I already mentioned, later one can use the obtained sodium chlorate to make potassium chlorate (or barium chlorate, which is also important in pyrotechnics) via a simple ion exchange reaction. Although this method is used in the mass production of the mentioned compounds, it can also be used to make smaller amounts of these products.
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After 160 hours have passed since the start of the electrolysis, the process is finished. The electrolyte is filtered a few times with the help of a medicinal gauze, in order to filter out larger unwanted particles. After that, the electrolyte was further filtered through cotton wool placed in a bottleneck (of a larger two-liter bottle) that was cut off. Gradually, by repetitive filtration, a yellow colored clear solution was obtained. Since the filtration was progressing at a very slow rate, I took a smaller amount of the already filtered solution, and the rest of the solution was slowly filtered for a few more hours. In the filtered solution, along with sodium chlorate, there was also some sodium hypochlorite. Because of that, the solution was heated until the boiling point was reached, and was kept at that temperature for about 15 minutes. Thanks to this step, all the sodium hypochlorite converted to more sodium chlorate (which is also the basis of the hypochlorite method of chlorate synthesis). After heating for 15 minutes, I checked the pH of the solution, and added a bit of sodium hydroxide solution so that the pH would get close to 8. If one assumes that all the NaCl passed into NaClO3, that would mean that from the starting 350 grams of sodium chloride, one could get around 627 grams of sodium chlorate, which is only possible in theory (the yield of this type of homemade cells is mostly around 50%). Although the yield of the process was surely much less than 100%, I calculated the amount of needed potassium chloride for the reaction of the ion exchange by taking into account the theoretical yield of 100%. That way, I was sure that all of the sodium chlorate passed into potassium chlorate. However, some of the potassium chloride remained unused (which is not a problem because thanks to its high solubility, it remains in the solution and doesn't cause problems when extracting potassium chlorate).
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Sodium ethoxide is one of the components used to synthesize diethyl ester of malonic acid apart from ethyl ester. Sodium ethoxide is also used in Claisen condensation.
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A reaction between sodium hydroxide and anhydrous ethanol gives us Sodium ethoxide combined with water. We can then remove the water by using a drying agent and it will leave us with Sodium ethoxide having greater purity.
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