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High dose D-serine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

Glutamatergic dysfunction in the brain has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

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What Is the Role of Neurotransmitters in Schizophrenia?

Omega-3s are a major component of brain cells and are key to the proper function of two brain chemical signaling systems, dopamine and serotonin, which have been implicated in schizophrenia.

This would explain why schizophrenia symptoms often first appear during the teen years.

The use of ‘megadoses’ of niacin was first tried by Drs Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer in 1951. So impressed were they with the results in acute schizophrenics that, in 1953, they ran the first double-blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry. Their first two trials showed significant improvement giving at least 3gs (3,000mg) a day, compared to placebos. They also found that chronic schizophrenics, not first-time sufferers but long-term inpatients, showed little improvement. The results of six double blind controlled trials showed that the natural recovery rate was doubled. Later they found that even chronic patients, treated for several years with niacin in combination with other nutrients, often recovered.

5-HTP hypothesis of schizophrenia - ScienceDirect

Dopamine is thought to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia.

Risk factors for schizophrenia have been the subject of several studies. The studies listed below were studies of risk factors identified in mixed samples of patients with schizophrenia. Some studies were case-control studies, while others were prospective studies. Even though schizophrenia is a high-risk condition for suicide, suicide is still a rare event in schizophrenia; therefore, large sample size and long follow-up are needed in prospective studies. For this reason, case-control studies might be more powerful in identifying risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia.

The low base rate of suicide indicates that very large randomised trials are needed if suicide is chosen as the primary outcome measure. Even in a high-risk group like patients with schizophrenia, a thousand patients in each intervention group would be needed to detect a reduction from six percent to three percent [Pocock, 1996]. Therefore, in some studies, deliberate self-harm has been chosen as the outcome measure, even though it is well known that the population of persons who attempt suicide are overlapping but not identical with the group of persons who die from suicide.

Serotonin Hypothesis of Schizophrenia | Curriki

This model covers specific, well-defined diseases and is based on the assumption that the disease develops through stages that can often be modified and in some cases, stopped or even reversed, which is true for many chronic diseases. The model can be applied with success to cancer, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, cardiovascular diseases, maybe schizophrenia, and a range of other diseases. It might also be a valid assumption to make for the suicidal process, but the pathways to suicide can be very different for different persons and for different groups of persons, and there is no common pathway from stage one to stage three. The suicidal process can in most cases be reversed. Another problem is that this classification of preventive measures is difficult to use in the case of suicide, since it is not a single disease, and the process leading to suicide can follow a range of different pathways. The preventive elements would have to cover a very broad range of interventions. If suicidal behaviour were to be compared with the fully developed disease dealt with in this model, it could for instance be an endpoint after a process with financial and personal problems; it could be a fatal complication of severe affective disorder; or it could be a complication of alcohol or drug abuse or a range of other social, medical and psychiatric conditions. Finally, another problem with the traditional prevention model is that if suicide is considered the target, the issue of tertiary prevention is meaningless. Jenkins [Jenkins and Singh, 2000] has suggested that tertiary prevention should focus on survivors, but they are independent persons themselves and should rather be considered as a risk group. Silverman has suggested that tertiary prevention should be understood as intervention after the first suicide attempt [Silverman, 1996].

West J, Logan RF, Hubbard RB, Card TR. Risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a general population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jan 1;23(1):71-4.

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  • schizophrenia | Serotonin Theory

    D. F. Horrobin et al., ‘The membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia’, Schizophrenia Research, Vol 13, 1994, pp. 195-207

  • A serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia

    There is a current debate about the effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) on suicidal behaviour.

  • The Role of Serotonin and Dopamine in Schizophrenia …

    To study the change in risk of suicide among patients with schizophrenia and related disorders.

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Dopamine and schizophrenia - Scholarpedia

H. Graff and A. Handford, ‘Celiac syndrome in the case history of five schizophrenics’, Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 35, 1961, pp. 306-13

Serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia

Emsley R, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg S, 'Clinical potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of schizophrenia', CNS Drugs. 2003;17(15):1081-91.

Dopamine, schizophrenia, mania, and depression: …

D. F. Horrobin DF et al., ‘Fatty acid levels in the brains of schizophrenics and normal controls’, Biol Psychiatry, Vol 30, 1991, pp. 795-805

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been one of the ..

Among patients with schizophrenia, there were no large studies investigating the effect on suicide of psychosocial interventions. The analyses of data from the OPUS trial indicates that the study did not have sufficient power to detect any effect on suicide, and that there was no indication of a positive effect on deliberate self-harm [Nordentoft et al., 2002b; Petersen et al., 2005].

into a new dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia ..

Where’s the evidence? Search our and enter ‘allergies' and ‘schizophrenia' into the search field for a summary of studies that demonstrate the effect of allergies on schizophrenia.

Glutamate Hypothesis of Schizophrenia - SlideShare

However, more recent research hasn’t found that coeliacs disease in more prevalent among those with schizophrenia or vice versa. However, the possibility of allergy to other foods may be worth investigating, especially if allergic symptoms, including eczema, asthma, digestive problems, ear infections, sinusitis or rhinitis are also present. At the Brain Bio Centre we frequently find that food intolerances to a range of foods appear to be contributing to symptoms, so investigating all types of food sensitivities is recommended.

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