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The Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites - R.B

Secondary metabolites are exploited in medicine and industry. Screening for different activities remains the mainstay of much of traditional biotechnology. The potential for secondary metabolites to explain behaviour needs to form part of any investigation of new and different fungi.

Mycology - Feeding - Secondary Metabolites

In the case of a methyl ketone, the terminal methyl group may undergo oxidation, eventually yielding -ketoacid, which is the substrate for further oxidation in the fatty acid pathway and citric acid cycle (Annex 1, reference ). In the case of ,-unsaturated ketones, glutathione may conjugate at the -position, yielding cysteine and mercapturic acid derivatives, which are also excreted primarily in the urine as the conjugated secondary alcohol (Williams, 1959; Portoghese et al., 1989).

Plant secondary metabolism - Wikipedia

Yu J-H & Keller N. (2005) Regulation of secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43: 437-458.

-also depending on why the statin is being taken – if its purely reduction of cholesterol and target levels have been achieved then no change should be considered BUT if has other morbidities then a change wouldn’t hurt eg secondary stroke prevention evidence base medicine says to use maximal statin therapy.
-without doing a literature search to see what happens to the activity of HMG reductase in individuals with disrupted sleep patterns and to find out what the triggers are for its activity (do large meals, melatonin levels, inactivity, the list is endless) and also given that sleep disturbance does alter metabolism I would assume that there is some effect of sleeping during day versus night on HMG reductase. The degree of that effect I assume as well would be difficult to quantify as frequency and duration of sleep disturbance pattern would be two of many factors that would play a part (feel completely free to correct me if I am wrong!)

Secondary metabolites are generally produced following active growth, and many have an unusual chemical structure. Some metabolites are found in a range of related fungi, while others are only found in one or a few species. The restricted distribution implies a lack of general function of secondary metabolites in fungi.

Atropine is a type of secondary metabolite called a tropane alkaloid.

Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis and Metabolism

Some plant fungi appear to modify host production of growth regulators, resulting in alterations of host metabolism. For instance, initiation of AM in roots results in a slowing of root tip elongation and increase in lateral formation. The cause may be associated with a change in concentrations of auxins and/or cytokinins from the fungus or induced in the host, an increase in local concentration of phosphate due to the fungi, or a factor influenced by either. Increases in expression of plant hormones may be direct or indirect. Resolution of the identity and importance of the fungal compounds remains.

Twenty aliphatic secondary ketones and related esters are methyl ketones (Nos 1119–1124, 1127, 1128, 1130–1132, 1134–1139 and 1149) or are secondary alcohols or related esters that are readily converted to methyl ketones in vivo (Nos 1140 and 1142) (see Table 1). Additional metabolic options are available for these substances. Methyl ketones undergo -hydroxylation and subsequent oxidation of the terminal methyl group to eventually yield corresponding ketocarboxylic acids (Gabriel et al., 1972). The ketoacids are intermediary metabolites (e.g. -ketoacids) that undergo oxidative decarboxylation to yield carbon dioxide and simple aliphatic carboxylic acids. The acids may be completely metabolized in the fatty acid pathway and citric acid cycle. The metabolism of -hydroxyacids and -ketoacids was recently reviewed (Annex 1, reference ).

Secondary metabolite biosynthesis in ..
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  • Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites - ResearchGate

    Plant secondary metabolism ..

  • Advancing secondary metabolite biosynthesis in yeast …

    A secondary metabolite biosynthesis cluster in …

  • plantiSMASH: Plant Secondary Metabolite Analysis

    Search plant genome sequence for secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters:

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Biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites - …

Fungi produce a diversity of metabolites, many of which appear unnecessary for the primary function of the host. However, many metabolites appear indirectly important, influencing fungal growth and survival. The structure of secondary metabolites varies enormously. Some are produced quite widely, and others are specific to a single fungus. Marked differences in expression can even be found even within a single species, and the environment plays an important role in expression.

Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis and Metabolism | …

The function of secondary metabolites is as varied as their structure. Some appear to directly or indirectly benefit the fungus, while the function of many others remains obscure. Secondary metabolites play an extremely important role in the functioning of fungi, providing one crucial element of their diversity.

The Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites - R.B. …

Needless to say, those animals that have evolved the capacity to detect the toxins or to detoxify them, will have a selective advantage. This has reached its most advanced state in the insects. Some species require toxins in their diet, or feed only from plants containing toxins. Further, some microbes in the GIT of animals have evolved the capacity to detoxify metabolites. The relationship between microbes and their hosts, and the organisms with which they interact is complex and yet to be explained. The role of fungi in this process of coevolution has not been clarified.

Primary and Secondary Metabolites - YouTube

Electron microcopy (EM) samples were prepared as described []. Briefly, EVs were loaded on 200 mesh grids, fixed with 2% PFA, stained with 2% neutral uranyl acetate, embedded in methyl cellulose uranyl acetate mixture (1.8/0.4%) and viewed with Tecnai 12 (FEI Company, Eindhoven, The Netherland) at 80 kV. For immuno-EM, samples were blocked and antibodies diluted with 0.5% and 0.1% BSA, respectively, in 0.1 M NaPO4 buffer (pH 7.0). Samples were incubated with primary antibodies (CD63, CD59 as in Puhka []) and 10 nm gold-conjugated anti-mouse secondary antibodies (BBI Solutions, Cardiff, UK) for 30-60 min at RT and washed extensively before staining and embedding. To quantify the size distribution of EVs, EV profiles were measured from randomly sampled images (maximum diameter, 100-400 profiles from each sample) of three independently processed uEV samples derived from different healthy donors and from a pEV sample derived from pooled platelets from four healthy donors.

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

Typically, two metabolic processes follow conjugation of the ,-unsaturated ketone. In one, the GSH conjugate undergoes enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis and -acetylation, yielding the corresponding -acetyl-L-cysteine derivative (i.e., mercapturic acid derivative) (Chasseaud, 1976). In the other, the ketone function may be reduced to the corresponding alcohol. The principal metabolite obtained from the urine of rats given 2-propenal by subcutaneous injection was -acetyl--(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (Kaye, 1973). Formation of the mercapturic acid derivative of the corresponding secondary alcohol has been reported with mesityl oxide [4-methyl-3-penten-2-one (No. 1131)] and with ethyl vinyl ketone [1-penten-3-one (No. 1147)] in vitro with rat liver homogenate (Boyland & Chasseaud, 1967; Chasseaud, 1976).

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