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Chapter 12 – Algae: the Good, Bad, and Ugly - Saltcorner

This process is where moisturecan condense out of the air, in our case, on the walls of the coolunderground tube.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8

As thatmuch higher humidity air has a lot of its moisture condense inside thetube, the system would provide even larger quantities of absolutelypure distilled water.

This can occur if the AIR going through the tube has dust particles init.

If only a short pipe is used (say 16 meters or 50 feet) it will workfine for a while, but that deep soil will gradually get heatedup by the hot air constantly going through the tube, and the effectgets reduced.

saltwater - American Aquarium Products (AAP)

If that does not providedesirable amounts of water, a funnel might be added to the air intake,to catch more air and force it through the tube.

Magnetic water treatment is based on the principle of “magnetohydrodynamics”, where; electrical energy is added to charged particles in water that contains ions and small solid particles with electrostatic charges by a magnetic field. The energy is produced by the momentum of the particles and remains attached to the particles as surface energy (Gehr et al., 1995). Magnetic water treatment works on the principle that as water passes through a magnetic water softener, a Lorentz force is exerted on each ion which is in the opposite direction of each other. The redirection of the particles increases the frequency of collisions between ions of opposite sides, combining to form a mineral precipitate or insoluble compound (Gholizadeh et al., 2008). Calcium carbonate precipitates out of solution as a sludge and can be easily removed from the system since it will not adhere to pipe walls.

Figure 1. Configuration of ionic particles in a magnetic field (Gholizadeh et al., 2008). The application of a magnetic field to natural water can enhance degassing by 25-30%, caused by local dehydration of surface microbubble films and a decrease in pressure in the center of vortices resulting in an increase in free gas bubbles that can then be released into the open air (Bogatin et al., 1999). This degassing increases permeability in soil, resulting in an increase in irrigation efficiency. When a magnetic field is applied to water the molecular structure becomes more stable and the ability to form hydrogen bonds is enhanced. Magnetizing water can increase the number of hydrogen bonds by 0.34% (Chang & Weng, 2006). In the same study, the researchers verified results of decreased surface tension and increased viscosity with the application of a magnetic field on water. Applying a magnetic field to natural water causes a redistribution of flow energy because of a momentum change of charged particles. All the particles and ions are electrically charged such that when magnetic fields are introduced convection and induced currents cause the liquid to spin. This movement then effects changes in gas content and the amount of salt crystallization centers in the water (Sherkliff, 1965). The quick change of the magnetic field in a properly designed magnetic water softener loosens hydrate layers and films in a moving liquid, thus enabling coagulation and coalescence (Bogatin et al., 1999). McMahon (2009) summarizes that in order for water to be properly treated magnets should have a strength reading of approximately 3000 Gauss, the solution should be passed through the device more than three times, that all piping should be steel, copper or PVC II and the orientation of the magnets should be alternating.

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Efficient Use of Water in the Garden and Landscape | …

If 100 cubic feet of air enters the tube every minute, that is about(100 / 15.3) 6.5 pounds of air every minute or 390 pounds of airevery hour.

By the time it has gotten tothe end of the tube and the air is then at around 70°F or 21°C, thePsychrometric Chart shows us that the air which had initially contained0.022 pound of water per pound of air at the very start of entering thetube, is now fully saturated air which now contains only 0.016 pound of waterin it.

Once our air has cooled to around 88°F (31°C), it hasgotten up to 100% Relative Humidity, meaning that it cannot holdany more water in it than that.At this point, the process necessarily moves along the green linein our example, downward and to the left, as the air continues tobe cooled in the underground tube.

Notice that for each of these, we show simple natural airflow due towind, to drive the air through the tube.
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  • Aquarium Chemistry | Calcium & KH & GH & pH & …

    For every pound of air that entered the tube,(0.022 - 0.016 or) 0.006 pound of water forms inside the tube.

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    Oxygen - Wikipedia

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homeostasis | Definition, Examples, & Facts | …

In that case, the water there would evaporate(leaving any salt or other contaminants there on the bottom tarp) to raisethe Relative Humidity of the air entering the intake tube.

How To Build A Solar-Powered Still To Purify Drinking Water

Finally, a blower froman automobile heater might be used to actively blow air through the tube.These arrangements really only produce significant amounts of water whenthe air temperature is high, in other words on sunny days near the middleof the day.

Osmosis and Its Applications - Springer

You can use the following automaticcalculator to get the results you need, for any location andany circumstances.If 500 cubic feet of air pass through the tube in a minute, that isaround 33 pounds of air (the Chart shows us that the air is around15.1 pound per cubic foot).

18/04/2014 · Osmosis and Its Applications

For any location where the air might contain a lot of dustor even sand particles, it is a good idea to add a filter over theintake to the underground air tube, and/or pour the resulting water througha cloth or better filter.

Generally, reverse osmosis system recoveries ..

As this air is cooled down by contact with themuch cooler (70°F or 21°C) walls of the tube, it first cools in a processthat is called reversible adiabatic.

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