T1 - Protein synthesis inhibitors, gene superinduction and memory
T1 - The sensitivity of memory consolidation and reconsolidation to inhibitors of protein synthesis and kinases
Protein Synthesis and Memory - Springer
To date, the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSI) in learning and memory processes have been attributed to translational arrest and consequent inhibition of de novo protein synthesis. Here we argue that amnesia produced by PSI can be the direct result of their abnormal induction of mRNA-a process termed gene superinduction. This action exerted by PSI involves an abundant and prolonged accumulation of mRNA transcripts of genes that are normally transiently induced. We summarize experimental evidence for the multiple mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating gene superinduction and consider its relevance for PSI-induced amnesia. This mechanistic alternative to protein synthesis inhibition is compared to models of electroconvulsive seizures and fragile × syndrome associated with enhanced mRNA/protein levels and cognitive deficits.
As shown by the reduced consumption during the third intake (), protein synthesis inhibition after the second taste presentation affected previously consolidated memory. This disruption seems to be partial, because a significant increment is observed during the third intake respective to its first one. Furthermore, we found AN disruption by anisomycin after the second intake even when the third taste exposure was delayed for a week (). An ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a group effect (F(3,35) = 4.12, p F(12,140) = 5.95, p p's p's , inset). These results show that after retrieval the inhibition of protein synthesis causes partial impairment of the previously consolidated taste memory trace, which in turn is dependent on taste experience but not on the time between experiences. Because AN is a graded learning task it follows that, for each taste presentation, a protein-synthesis-dependent process should be initiated to complete the following AN step.
17/04/2014 · Protein Synthesis and Memory
Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1) trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2) regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3) intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days) memory.
Consolidation is the process by which a new memory is stabilized over time, and is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. A useful model for studying memory formation is gustatory memory, a type of memory in which a novel taste may become either safe by not being followed by negative consequences (attenuation of neophobia. AN), or aversive by being followed by post-digestive malaise (conditioned taste aversion, CCA). Here we evaluated the effects of the administration of a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell for either safe or aversive taste memory trace consolidation. To test the effects on CTA and AN of protein synthesis inhibition, anisomycin (100 mu g/mu l) was bilaterally infused into the NAc shell of Wistar rats' brains. We found that post-trial protein synthesis blockade impaired the long-term safe taste memory. However, protein synthesis inhibition failed to disrupt the long-term memory of CCA. In addition, we infused anisomycin in the NAc shell after the pre-exposure to saccharin in a latent inhibition of aversive taste. We found that the protein synthesis inhibition impaired the consolidation of safe taste memory, allowing the aversive taste memory to form and consolidate. Our results suggest that protein synthesis is required in the NAc shell for consolidation of safe but not aversive taste memories, supporting the notion that consolidation of taste memory is processed in several brain regions in parallel, and implying that inhibitory interactions between both taste memory traces do occur. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Protein Synthesis and Memory Formation | SpringerLink
N2 - Fear conditioning has received extensive experimental attention. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie fear memory consolidation. Previous studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) exists in pathways known to be relevant to fear conditioning and that fear conditioning modifies neural processing in these pathways in a manner similar to LTP induction. The present experiments examined whether inhibition of protein synthesis, PKA, and MAP kinase activity, treatments that block LTP, also interfere with the consolidation of fear conditioning. Rats were injected intraventricularly with Anisomycin (100 or 300 μg), Rp-cAMPS (90 or 180 μg), or PD098059 (1 or 3 μg) prior to conditioning and assessed for retention of contextual and auditory fear memory both within an hour and 24 hr later. Results indicated that injection of these compounds selectively interfered with long-term memory for contextual and auditory fear, while leaving short-term memory intact. Additional control groups indicated that this effect was likely due to impaired memory consolidation rather than to nonspecific effects of the drugs on fear expression. Results suggest that fear conditioning and LTP may share common molecular mechanisms.
N2 - Until recently, memory consolidation and storage had been traditionally viewed as a permissive process derived from learning-activated molecular signaling cascades which include activations of the NMDA receptors, CaMKII, PKC, PKA and other kinases, new protein synthesis and CREB-mediated gene expression, and subsequent structural modifications at certain synapses. However, the time-scale of such a cascade is incompatible with the timescale of systems-level memory consolidation. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that synaptic proteins and structures are not stationary, but rather are highly dynamical and subjected to metabolic turnovers which would cause drift in synaptic efficacy and subsequently unstable neural circuits. Recent experiments using inducible gene- or protein-knockout techniques reveal that post-learning NMDA receptor and CaMKII reactivations are required for the systems-level consolidation of both hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memories. Furthermore, the reactivations of the NMDA receptors are also necessary for the long-term storage of old memories in the neural circuits. Therefore, the NMDA receptor reactivation-mediated synaptic reentry reinforcement (SRR) process may represent the unifying cellular mechanism in linking the consolidation and storage of long-term memories from the molecular level to the systems-level.
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N2 - Previous studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) after stimulation of central auditory pathways and that auditory fear conditioning modifies neural activity in the LA in a manner similar to LTP. The present experiments examined whether intra-LA administration of inhibitors of protein synthesis or protein kinase A (PKA) activity, treatments that block LTP in hippocampus, interfere with memory consolidation of fear conditioning. In the first series of experiments, rats received a single conditioning trial followed immediately by intra-LA infusions of anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) or Rp-cAMPS (an inhibitor of PKA activity) and were tested 24 hr later. Results indicated that immediate post-training infusion of either drug dose-dependently impaired fear memory retention, whereas infusions 6 hr after conditioning had no effect. Additional experiments showed that anisomycin and Rp-cAMPS interfered with long-term memory (LTM), but not short-term memory (STM), of fear and that the effect on LTM was specific to memory consolidation processes rather than to deficits in sensory or performance processes. Findings suggest that the LA is essential for memory consolidation of auditory fear conditioning and that this process is PKA and protein-synthesis dependent.
and memory consolidation occurs (REM).
AB - Previous studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) after stimulation of central auditory pathways and that auditory fear conditioning modifies neural activity in the LA in a manner similar to LTP. The present experiments examined whether intra-LA administration of inhibitors of protein synthesis or protein kinase A (PKA) activity, treatments that block LTP in hippocampus, interfere with memory consolidation of fear conditioning. In the first series of experiments, rats received a single conditioning trial followed immediately by intra-LA infusions of anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) or Rp-cAMPS (an inhibitor of PKA activity) and were tested 24 hr later. Results indicated that immediate post-training infusion of either drug dose-dependently impaired fear memory retention, whereas infusions 6 hr after conditioning had no effect. Additional experiments showed that anisomycin and Rp-cAMPS interfered with long-term memory (LTM), but not short-term memory (STM), of fear and that the effect on LTM was specific to memory consolidation processes rather than to deficits in sensory or performance processes. Findings suggest that the LA is essential for memory consolidation of auditory fear conditioning and that this process is PKA and protein-synthesis dependent.
level and the disruption of consolidation with protein synthesis ..
N2 - After consolidation, a process that requires gene expression and protein synthesis, memories are stable and highly resistant to disruption by amnestic influences. Recently, consolidated memory has been shown to become labile again after retrieval and to require a phase of reconsolidation to be preserved. New findings, showing that the dependence of reconsolidation on protein synthesis decreases with the age of memory, point to changing molecular requirements for reconsolidation during memory maturation. We examined this possibility by comparing the roles of protein synthesis (a general molecular requirement for memory consolidation) and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) (a specific molecular requirement for memory consolidation), in memory reconsolidation at two time points after training. Using associative learning in Lymnaea, we show that reconsolidation after the retrieval of consolidated memory at both 6 and 24 h requires protein synthesis. In contrast, only reconsolidation at 6 h after training, but not at 24 h, requires PKA activity, which is in agreement with the measured retrieval-induced PKA activation at 6 h. This phase-dependent differential molecular requirement for reconsolidation supports the notion that even seemingly consolidated memories undergo further selective molecular maturation processes, which may only be detected by analyzing the role of specific pathways in memory reconsolidation after retrieval.
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