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glutamine family amino acid biosynthetic processis_a:

proline biosynthetic process

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regulation of proline biosynthetic process (1)

The synthesis of proteins is known as translation. Translation occurs in the where the are located. Ribosomes are made of a small and large subunit which surrounds the mRNA. In translation, is decoded to produce a specific according to the rules specified by the trinucleotide . This uses an mRNA sequence as a template to guide the synthesis of a chain of that form a protein. Translation proceeds in four phases: activation, initiation, elongation and termination (all describing the growth of the amino acid chain, or that is the product of translation).

proline biosynthetic process
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Many proteins undergo post-translational modification. This may include the formation of or attachment of any of a number of biochemical , such as , , various and . may also remove one or more amino acids from the leading (amino) end of the polypeptide chain, leaving a protein consisting of two polypeptide chains connected by disulfide bonds.

glutamine family amino acid biosynthetic process

Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, is different for  and .
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are the monomers which are to produce proteins. Amino acid synthesis is the set of processes () which build the amino acids from carbon sources like .

It is still not fully known , exactly when and how, the actual modification of a given amino acid residue occurs, at which stage of synthesis, within a protein molecule .

The origin of free hydroxyproline in hydroxyprolinemia.

proline metabolic processis_a:
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For synthesis of protein, a succession of molecules charged with appropriate amino acids have to be brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through their anti-codons with each of its successive codons. The amino acids then have to be linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, relieved of their burdens, have to be released. This whole complex of processes is carried out by a giant multimolecular machine, the , formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (), and more than 50 different proteins. This molecular juggernaut latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and then trundles along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and stitching together the amino acids they carry to form a new protein chain.

Many organisms have the ability to synthesize only a subset of the amino acids they need. Adult humans, for example, need to obtain 10 of the 20 amino acids from their food.

proline salvage
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Chemical Synthesis Machine - Feed The Beast Wiki

The DNA is transcribed into a variety of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a chain. Proteins can often be synthesized directly from genes by . When a protein is harmful and needs to be available on short notice or in large quantities, a is produced. A is an inactive protein containing one or more that can be activated when the inhibitory sequence is removed by during . A is a form that contains a signal sequence (an N-terminal ) that specifies its insertion into or through membranes; i.e., targets them for secretion. The signal peptide is cleaved off in the . have both sequences (inhibitory and signal) still present.

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The synthesis of DNA from an RNA template, via reverse transcription, produces complementary DNA (cDNA). Reverse transcriptases (RTs) use an RNA template and a short primer complementary to the 3' end of the RNA to direct the synthesis of the first strand cDNA, which can be used directly as a template for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This combination of reverse transcription and PCR (RT-PCR) allows the detection of low abundance RNAs in a sample, and production of the corresponding cDNA, thereby facilitating the cloning of low copy genes. Alternatively, the first-strand cDNA can be made double-stranded using DNA Polymerase I and DNA Ligase. These reaction products can be used for direct cloning without amplification. In this case, RNase H activity, from either the RT or supplied exogenously, is required.

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Transcription occurs in the , where the DNA is held. The DNA structure is two helixes made up of sugar and phosphate held together by the bases. The sugar and the phosphate are joined together by covalent bond. The DNA is "unzipped" by the enzyme , leaving the single nucleotide chain open to be copied. RNA polymerase reads the DNA strand from 3 prime (3') end to the 5 prime (5') end, while it synthesizes a single strand of messenger RNA in the 5' to 3' direction. The general RNA structure is very similar to the DNA structure, but in RNA the nucleotide takes the place that occupies in DNA. The single strand of mRNA leaves the nucleus through , and migrates into the .

Category:GO:0006561 ! proline biosynthetic process - …

Many RTs are available from commercial suppliers. and Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MuLV, MMLV) Reverse Transcriptase are RTs that are commonly used in molecular biology workflows. lacks 3´ → 5´ exonuclease activity. is a recombinant M-MuLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNase H activity and increased thermostability. It can be used to synthesize first strand cDNA at higher temperatures than the wild-type M-MuLV. The enzyme is active up to 50°C, providing higher specificity, higher yield of cDNA and more full-length cDNA product, up to 12 kb in length.

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