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Prolactin Synthesis and Secretion by Human Breast …

Estrogens provide a well-studied positive control over prolactin synthesis and secretion.

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Prolactin Physiology | Pathway Medicine

John sees his primary care physician who conducts some testing including blood work and imaging. His results show that John has lower than normal luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone levels. Most noteworthy is that John’s prolactin levels are very high. An MRI confirms what his physician was thinking “hyperprolactinemia due to a prolactinoma”, which is elevated serum prolactin levels resulting from a tumor of the anterior pituitary gland.

Regulatory Axis; Prolactin is synthesized and secreted by lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary

The effects of histamine on prolactin secretion and the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in male rats. Tuberoinfundibular DA neuronal activity was estimated in situ by measuring the metabolism [concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)] and synthesis [accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor] of dopamine in the median eminence. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of histamine produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in plasma prolactin levels but had no effect on DOPA accumulation or DOPAC concentrations in the median eminence. These results indicate that the stimulation of prolactin secretion following icv histamine is not mediated by an inhibition of tuberoinfundibular DA neurons.

Regulation of Pituitary Prolactin Synthesis and Secretion

T1 - Evidence that histamine-stimulated prolactin secretion is not mediated by an inhibition of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons

N2 - The effects of histamine on prolactin secretion and the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in male rats. Tuberoinfundibular DA neuronal activity was estimated in situ by measuring the metabolism [concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)] and synthesis [accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor] of dopamine in the median eminence. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of histamine produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in plasma prolactin levels but had no effect on DOPA accumulation or DOPAC concentrations in the median eminence. These results indicate that the stimulation of prolactin secretion following icv histamine is not mediated by an inhibition of tuberoinfundibular DA neurons.

AB - The effects of histamine on prolactin secretion and the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in male rats. Tuberoinfundibular DA neuronal activity was estimated in situ by measuring the metabolism [concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)] and synthesis [accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor] of dopamine in the median eminence. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of histamine produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in plasma prolactin levels but had no effect on DOPA accumulation or DOPAC concentrations in the median eminence. These results indicate that the stimulation of prolactin secretion following icv histamine is not mediated by an inhibition of tuberoinfundibular DA neurons.

Prolactin secretion in molar and normal pregnancy

Magnesium helps in the production of sex hormones like androgen and estrogen that regulate the urge down there. This mineral has documented aphrodisiac effects, which can improve your libido and sexual performance. It also helps to calm and relax you so that you can have an increased sex drive.

Treatment is indicated when patients are experiencing symptomatic hormone imbalances or neurologic symptoms, such as vision changes and headaches. First line treatment is typically medical management using prolactin inhibiting drugs like bromocriptine and carbergoline. These agents indirectly decrease prolactin levels and can considerably reduce the size of prolactin tumors in the pituitary. Other treatments may need to be considered, depending on the individual health conditions of each patient (6). Larger tumors causing mass effect or tumors unresponsive to pharmacologic therapy or hemorrhaged tumors may require surgery. Surgery is generally successful in lowering prolactin levels, but all of the adenoma tissue may not be excised, especially if the tumor is large, and the adenoma might recur (9).

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Effects of melatonin and prolactin in reproduction: …

Prolactinomas can arise in men and cause no symptoms. More typically, the production of high prolactin levels can cause symptoms that men are disinclined to share with a physician, such as erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. For this reason, they typically present to a physician late, allowing the tumors to grow larger. If the tumor grows larger than 1 cm, it is known as a macroadenoma. This can lead to symptoms associated with “mass effect,” such as headaches and visual defects (5). Men often do not seek medical attention for symptoms associated with a prolactinoma until after a tumor has exceeded 1cm in diameter. A macroadenoma can become large enough to grow out of the sella turcica, the structure in which the pituitary gland sits, and the compress the optic chiasm (see figure 2), where the optic nerves from each eye cross. Lesions of the optic chiasm can cause visual losses, specifically losses of the temporal visual fields, known as bitemporal hemianopsia. Men with macroadenomas compressing the optic chiasm can present with visual blurring or losses in this pattern in one or both of the eyes (8).

Effect of amantadine on prolactin secretion, pituitary …

Prolactinomas are prolactin-secreting tumors and the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia in males (see figure 2). These tumors are the most common neoplasms of the pituitary gland, accounting for 30-40% of pituitary adenomas (6). Prolactinomas may arise as a single medical abnormality. However, some also occur in the setting of the familial condition, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Prolactinomas are usually benign and vary in size. A prolactin level above 200 ng/mL is highly suggestive of prolactinoma. The amount of prolactin secreted by the tumors often correlates with the size of the adenoma. Elevated prolactin levels due to a prolactinoma can range from minimally elevated (e.g. >21 ng/mL) to greater than 50,000 ng/mL (6). While a prolactin level above 200 ng/mL likely indicates a prolactinoma, imaging studies of the head are generally indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed in any patient with hyperprolactinemia unless the cause can be attributed to a medication being taken by the patient (6). Other pituitary hormone levels, such as thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone, should be tested if a mass is discovered in the pituitary on MRI to evaluate other possible hormone abnormalities caused by the tumor (7).

Prolactin synthesis and secretion by human breast …

Hyperprolactinemia is defined as increased levels of serum prolactin. Normal prolactin levels are between 5-21 ng/mL. A prolactin level greater than 21 ng/mL is abnormally high (7). Hyperprolactinemia can be high due to normal physiological causes. Physiological or psychological stress can elevate prolactin in both men and women, but values rarely exceed 40 ng/mL. Women generally have higher levels of prolactin than men and also secrete more prolactin in response to physiological triggers than men (6). Strenuous exercise, sleep, and high-protein meals have also shown to increase prolactin levels.

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