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Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis:

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What is the process of photosynthesis

Organisms need energy to survive. Some organisms are capable of absorbing energy from sunlight and using it to produce and other organic compounds such as and . The sugars are then used to provide energy for the organism. This process, called photosynthesis, is used by including , , and .

Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis

There are two types of photosynthetic processes: oxygenic photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most common and is seen in plants, algae and cyanobacteria.

The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants (With Diagram)

Though both types of photosynthesis are complex, multi-step affairs, the overall process can be neatly summarized as a chemical equation.

Photosynthetic organisms contain organelles called plastids in their cytoplasm. According to Cheong Xin Chan and Debashish Bhattacharya of Rutgers University (), the double-membraned plastids in plants and algae are referred to as primary plastids, while the multiple-membraned variety found in plankton are called secondary plastids. These organelles generally contain pigments or can store nutrients. In “” (Sinauer Associates, 2000), Geoffrey Cooper enumerates the various plastids found in plants. Colorless and non-pigmented leucoplasts store fats and starch, while chromoplasts contain carotenoids and chloroplasts contain chlorophyll.

Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. These stages are called the light reactions and the dark reactions. The light reactions take place in the presence of light. The dark reactions do not require direct light, however dark reactions in most plants occur during the day.

ADVERTISEMENTS: The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, specifically, in the grana and stroma regions. The grana is the of the organelle; a collection of disc-shaped membranes, stacked into columns like plates. The individual discs are called thylakoids. It is here that the transfer of electrons takes place. The empty spaces between columns of grana constitute the stroma (The Cell: A Molecular Approach 2nd Ed, Sinauer Associates, 2000).

Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, a green pigment located in structures called . Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain several structures, each having specific functions:

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Chloroplasts are similar to in that they have their own genome, or collection of genes, contained within circular DNA. These genes essential to the organelle and to photosynthesis. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts are also thought to have originated from primitive bacterial cells through the process of endosymbiosis.

What Is Photosynthesis? From Light Energy to Chemical …

In plants, photosynthesis occurs mainly within the . Since photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, all of these substances must be obtained by or transported to the leaves. Carbon dioxide is obtained through tiny pores in plant leaves called stomata. Oxygen is also released through the stomata. Water is obtained by the plant through the roots and delivered to the leaves through .

Learn About Photosynthesis Formula - ThoughtCo

In summary, photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds. In plants, photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant . Photosynthesis consists of two stages, the light reactions and the dark reactions. The light reactions convert light into energy (ATP and NADHP) and the dark reactions use the energy and carbon dioxide to produce sugar. For a review of photosynthesis, take the .

BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Like any project there is a shopping list, most of these items are household items or tools, and you will most likely already have them. I recommend vendors on eBay for items like the glass plates and titanium dioxide.

- Titanium Dioxide (white powder, often used in make-up)

- 2 Binder clips (to hold the plates together)

- Acetone or rubbing alcohol

- Glass plates*

- Graphite powder/pencil/lubricant stick

- Syringe (not a must, just handy)

- Multi meter

- Cotton pads/swabs

- Alligator clips

- Aluminum profile (or something straight, non-porous like a piece of hard plastic)

- 2 dishes, both shallow

- Spoon

- Demi water (de-mineralized water)

- Raspberry, blueberry or blackberry juice (has to be made directly from the fruit! no processed juices!)

- Iodide solution

- Cooktop/hotplate

The total cost of this project was about 30 dollars for me, as I had quite a lot of the items on the list already.

*These glass plates need to be covered (on one side) in tin oxide (SnO2) this makes the plates conductive which is important. Searching “conductive glass“ on eBay gives some good results.

C4 photosynthesis (Khan Academy)

“Plastids originated from engulfed photosynthetic bacteria that were acquired by a single-celled eukaryotic cell more than a billion years ago,” Baum told LiveScience. Baum explained that the analysis of chloroplast genes shows that it was once a member of the group , “the one group of bacteria that can accomplish oxygenic photosynthesis.”

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