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LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis

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Section 16.3 Photosynthetic Stages and Light-Absorbing Pigments

Photopigments: Organic substances responsible for collecting light energy and hence the promotion of photosynthesis. Common photopigments in zooxanthellae are chlorophyll , chlorophyll peridinin, and -carotene.

In all photosynthetic organisms, organic pigments exist to harvest the light energy.

Photosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment found inside the thylakoid membranes. These chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. Excited electron anywhere within the photosystem are then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers.

Role of Pigments in Photosynthesis - Google Sites

Photosynthesis takes place in only the green parts of plants, which the green part are chlorophyll pigments.

For this reason it is noteworthy that while any light within the PAR range can be used, providing light energy outside certain proven/evolved aspects of PAS can result in poor growth or allowing of less desirable algae to out compete plants or coral we are attempting to cultivate. This why it is a FACT that while certain lights may keep photosynthetic life, less than optimum spectrums found in many of the inferior lights will either produce lessor results and/or require more input light energy for the same results as say a high PAS & PUR light such as the AAP AquaRay.
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Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) are also found in zooxanthellae. Two xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) play an important role in protecting symbiotic algae and coral hosts from excessive light energy. When light energy is sufficient enough to effect pH changes within the photosynthetic apparatus of zooxanthellae, diadinoxanthin is converted to diatoxanthin. This conversion shunts light energy away from photosynthesis. In darkness, the process reverses, and diatoxanthin becomes diadinoxanthin. Note that these xanthophylls both absorb some violet but most strongly blue wavelengths at ~450 - 490nm. See Figure 28.

Role of Pigments in Photosynthesis

charge separation in conventional photosynthetic pigments.

Additionally, pigments in zooxanthellae (MAAs, or mycosporine-like amino acids) protect zooxanthellae against ultraviolet radiation do so only up to about 340 nm. If the energy of UV-A light between 340 nm and 380 nm is absorbed by photopigments, but not used in photosynthesis, how else would it be dissipated? See Table 11.

The picture above depicts both full solar radiation that reaches the earth as well as how a few different man-made light sources fit into the visible/PAR aspect of this spectrum.
What is noteworthy is how much radiation falls outside the PAR, in particular the longer frequency wave lengths going into radio waves. There is much that we also do not know, since photosynthetic plants, zooanthellic algae, etc. might also be using radiant energy we do not know about. What we do know is that since UVC is not reaching the earth's surface and that even UVB only reaches in small amounts (if at all during certain times of the day and seasons), that it is likely this is mostly useless for our application.

What Is the Role of Carotenoids in Photosynthesis? | …
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Series Three Photosynthesis Lab 8 : Photosynthetic Pigments

As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.

Role of chloroplast in Photosynthesis ..

The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.

State the photosynthetic pigments involved in ..

So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.

chloroplast | Function, Location, & Diagram | …

Xanthophylls: Oxygenated carotenoids. Important xanthophylls found in zooxanthellae are diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin - these play an important role in protecting them from excessive light. Dinoxanthin is an accessory pigment that transfers collected energy to dinoflagellates photosystems (with an unknown efficiency) and might act as an antioxidant as well.

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