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Cyanobacteria and the evolution of photosynthesis

Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis – The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology;

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Photosynthesis and Respiration - YouTube

Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water react together in the presence of light and chlorophyll to make glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch, fats and oils for storage. It is used to make cellulose for cell walls, and proteins for growth and repair. It is also used by the plant to release energy by respiration.

Early Evolution of Photosynthesis | Plant Physiology

"Such concave light dependence was quite similar that observed in cyanobacteria," points out Professor Sonoike. "Although glaucophytes perform photosynthesis and respiration separately with respective organelles unlike cyanobacteria, similar metabolic interactions are observed in both organisms."

013 - Photosynthesis and Respiration — bozemanscience

These results formulate a new theory on the effects of respiration and other metabolic reactions on photosynthesis. Such metabolic reactions are believed to slow down photosynthetic efficiency, but glaucophytes seem to use a different metabolic pathway to make up for the loss. In recent years, it was found that though plants without DNA regulation on photosynthesis can survive under certain light conditions, such plants can be easily destroyed in nature, where the amount of light depends on the environment. Taking this into consideration, a hypothesis arises that regulating photosynthesis in dark places under weak light through metabolic interactions in advance may be necessary for effective photosynthesis in nature. Professor Sonoike plans to further investigate whether respiration, an opposing reaction to photosynthesis, could actually be helping the efficiency of photosynthesis.

These Teacher Notes summarize basic concepts and information related to energy, ATP, cellular respiration, and photosynthesis. These Teacher Notes also review common misconceptions and suggest a sequence of learning activities designed to develop student understanding of important concepts and overcome any misconceptions.

Differences between Respiration and Photosynthesis

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

In this study, Professor Sonoike measured chlorophyll fluorescence using a pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer to analyze photosynthesis in C. paradoxa, without destroying the cells, and check its interactions with metabolic reactions such as respiration. The application of such technique to algae is not easy, but being an expert in measuring fluorescence in cyanobacteria, Professor Sonoike successfully adapted the method to this research.

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  • Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - Honors …

    Learn how plants make food using photosynthesis and how leaves adapt to do this with BBC Bitesize KS3 Science

  • Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

    An understanding of the origin and evolution of photosynthesis is therefore of ..

  • Photosynthesis and Respiration Quiz 1 HTML5

    we find ourselves at a good spot to explore photosynthesis and respiration

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ASCEND Biology - Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration

The evolution of photosynthetic organisms began approximately 2.5 billion years ago when cyanobacteria came into existence and first used water molecules for photosynthesis, releasing oxygen as a by-product and changing life forms on earth. After an endosymbiosis event involving a eukaryote and a cyanobacterium, red algae, green algae and glaucophytes diverged from its common ancestor, a eukaryotic photosynthetic organism. In this long process, various metabolic interactions in cells have changed dramatically. For example, when cyanobacteria, which had performed both photosynthesis and respiration until then, evolved into chloroplast, mitochondria became responsible for respiration. Yet, there was a lack of information of these aspects in glaucophytes which needed to be addressed in order to understand the diversity of photosynthetic regulation and metabolic interaction among primary symbiotic algae.

Respiration and Photosynthesis ..

A recent study by Waseda University researchers indicated that the effect of respiration on photosynthesis in the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa is surprisingly similar to the interaction between respiration and photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. These results suggest that cyanelles retain many of the characteristics observed in their ancestral cyanobacteria.

Photosynthesis and Respiration - AP biology

The May, 2011 revision incorporates additional information that should be useful in teaching about energy, cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

Respiration and Photosynthesis - Biology Is Fun

Despite learning that the structure of cyanelles, an organelle unique to glaucophytes, is most similar to the ancestral cyanobacteria among other organelles, these studies have not conclusively resolved the branching position of glaucophytes and left the early branching history of the three primary photosynthetic lineages uncertain.

Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration and Evolution Review

Tokyo, Japan - Scientists have long studied which of the three primary photosynthetic eukaryotes (red algae, green algae, and glaucophytes) has come into existence first to unravel the biological mystery of algae evolution by analyzing their genetic information.

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