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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration | CourseNotes

Photosynthesis consists of light-dependent and light-independent reactions.

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Photosynthesis and Respiration - Revision Notes in …

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Other sections include plants, animal systems, invertebrates, vertebrates, and microorganisms.

Oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element, whereas reduction involves the gain of electrons and that oxidation frequently involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen, whereas reduction frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen.

Product Description Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Lesson ..

Below are things that plants need for photosynthesis:

Carbon dioxide (A colorless, naturally occurring odorless gas found in the air we breathe. It has a scientific symbol CO2. CO2 is produced by burning carbon and organic compounds. It is also produced when plants and animals breathe out during respiration)


Light (Even though both natural and artificial light is OK for plants, natural sunlight is usually great for photosynthesis because they have other natural UV properties that help the plant)

Chlorophyll (This is the green pigment found in the leaves of plants)

Nutrients and minerals (Chemicals and organic compounds which the plant roots absorb from the soil)

Figure 8.1.7 shows the movement of protons down their concentration gradient. They can only travel through the inner membrane via ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP.

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis And Respiration Study Guide …

The protons then move down the concentration gradient from the space between the inner and outer membranes back into the matrix. However, they can only move back across via an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane. This enzyme is called ATP synthase. The protons are transported back into the matrix through the channels of ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is then used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP. Since the electrons come from previous oxidation reactions of cell respiration and the ATP synthase catalyses the phosphorylation of ADP into ATP, this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmosis is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation to work.

Figure 8.1.6 shows the movement of protons from the matrix into the space between the inner and outer membranes. This creates a concentration gradient. The energy used to pump these protons across the inner membrane comes from the energy released by the electrons passing through the electron transport chain.

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  • ***Photosynthesis and Respiration Notes - Deranger ISN

    ATP and hydrogen derived from photolysis of water are used to fix carbon dioxide to make organic molecules.

  • What is the difference between photosynthesis and respiration?

    Photosynthesis 8.2.1 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a chloroplast as seen in electron micrographs.

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Graphic Notes

    MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Chapter 8 photosynthesis and respiration study guide answers

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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Notes

When electrons pass through the electron transport chain they release energy. This energy is then used to pump protons (H+) from the matrix across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The space between the inner and outer membranes has a small volume and therefore as the protons move across they create a concentration gradient very quickly. This process is called chemiosmosis. There is now a high concentration of protons in the space between the inner and outer membranes and a low concentration of protons in the matrix.

Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration Notes

A limiting factor is a factor that controls a process. Light intensity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are all factors which can control the rate of photosynthesis. Usually, only one of these factors will be the limiting factor in a plant at a certain time. This is the factor which is the furthest from its optimum level at a particular point in time. If we change the limiting factor the rate of photosynthesis will change but changes to the other factors will have no effect on the rate. If the levels of the limiting factor increase so that this factor is no longer the furthest from its optimum level, the limiting factor will change to the factor which is at that point in time, the furthest from its optimum level. For example, at night the limiting factor is likely to be the light intensity as this will be the furthest from its optimum level. During the day, the limiting factor is likely to switch to the temperature or the carbon dioxide concentration as the light intensity increases.

photosynthesis notes - Biology Junction

So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.

This tutorial introduces mitochondria

As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.

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