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Synthesis of nanoparticles- physical,chemical and biological

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Synthesis of nanoparticles- physical,chemical and biological 1

Highly monodisperse sodium citrate-coated spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with controlled sizes ranging from 10 to 200 nm have been synthesized by following a kinetically controlled seeded-growth approach via the reduction of silver nitrate by the combination of two chemical reducing agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The use of traces of tannic acid is fundamental in the synthesis of silver seeds, with an unprecedented (nanometric resolution) narrow size distribution that becomes even narrower, by size focusing, during the growth process. The homogeneous growth of Ag seeds is kinetically controlled by adjusting reaction parameters: concentrations of reducing agents, temperature, silver precursor to seed ratio, and pH. This method produces long-term stable aqueous colloidal dispersions of Ag NPs with narrow size distributions, relatively high concentrations (up to 6 × 1012 NPs/mL), and, more important, readily accessible surfaces. This was proved by studying the catalytic properties of as-synthesized Ag NPs using the reduction of Rhodamine B (RhB) by sodium borohydride as a model reaction system. As a result, we show the ability of citrate-stabilized Ag NPs to act as very efficient catalysts for the degradation of RhB while the coating with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) layer dramatically decreased the reaction rate.

Synthesis of Nanoparticles - UnderstandingNano

38. Zhang C, Fu YY, Zhang X. . BSA-directed synthesis of CuS nanoparticles as a biocompatible photothermal agent for tumor ablation . 2015;44:13112-8

Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and …

44. Gao J, Gu H, Xu B. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: design, synthesis, and biomedical applications.  2009;42:1097-107

173. Chung HJ, Lee H, Bae KH, Lee Y, Park J, Cho SW. . Facile synthetic route for surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: cell labeling and magnetic resonance imaging studies. 2011;5:4329-36

171. Lutz JF, Stiller S, Hoth A, Kaufner L, Pison U, Cartier R. One-pot synthesis of PEGylated ultrasmall iron-oxide nanoparticles and their invivo evaluationasmagnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. 2006;7:3132-8

Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Nanoparticle synthesis methods include plasma source,spark, laser ablation, CVD and ball milling.

On the basis of the high biocompatibility and long blood circulation half-life of albumin, many studies have been devoted to the development of albumin-stabilized nanoparticles for biomedical applications [-]. Albumin could be introduced during nanoparticle synthesis or stabilizer replacement [-].

Jeong demonstrated the use of galactose-conjugated SPIONs as a hepatocyte-targeted dual contrast agent (nuclear imaging/ MRI) in a mouse model []. Generally, SPIONs are nonspecifically phagocytosed or endocytosed by RES in the liver, spleen, lymph, and bone marrow after i.v. injection. Therefore, hepatocyte-selective imaging was needed for the evaluation of hepatocytic function under certain clinical conditions, such as partial liver transplant or hepatitis, as well as for monitoring the disease progress. This research group synthesized lactobionic acid- (LBA) with a high affinity for ASGP-R, and immobilized the LBA onto SPIONs via amide linkages between the dopamine-modified SPIONs bearing a primary amine group and the lactobionic acid using 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)-propyl) carbodiimide/ -hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) chemistry. To radiolabel nanoparticles with 99mTC, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was then conjugated to the remaining amine groups of dopamine-SPIONs. After tail vein injection, micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images and T2-weighted MR images indicated that the 99mTC-LBA-SPION mainly accumulated in the liver within a few minutes. A competition study involving blocking of the ASGP-R with free galactose showed a large decrease in the liver uptake, suggesting ASGP-R-mediated uptake of 99mTC-LBA-SPIONs. TEM analysis confirmed that the LBA-SPIONs were located in the mitochondrial matrix as well as in the cytoplasm, indicating ASGP-R-mediated internalization of the nanoparticles into hepatocytes.

Chapter 2: Nanoparticle Synthesis Strategies
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Thesis on biological synthesis of nanoparticles Eop essay help

In addition to organic coatings, core-shell structures, such as biocompatible silica- or gold-covered magnetic nanoparticles, have provided an attractive approach to developing stealth nanoparticles. Silica shells serve as protective stable nanoparticle coatings under aqueous conditions. The ability to encapsulate functional molecules within the nanoparticle matrix is a unique feature of these nanostructures. Hyeon and Moon developed Fe3O4 nanocrystal-embedded, core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and they demonstrated their multifunctional application to simultaneous MR/optical imaging and drug delivery []. This study suggested a precise method for controlling the size of the silica nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm. The surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) provided an organic template for the formation of a mesoporous silica shell and stabilized the hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanocrystals in an aqueous solution. The sol-gel process occurred through the template by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC)-labeled aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), and generated amine groups containing silica shell, to which PEG was covalently conjugated via succinimidyl end group to render further biocompatibility. Dox molecules loaded onto the as-synthesized Fe3O4@mSiO2(R)-PEG NPs to convey therapeutic properties. The core-shell structure exhibited magnetic and fluorescent properties, as well as a therapeutic index, suggesting the utility of the nanostructure in biomedical theranostic applications. On the other hand, gold provides several advantages as a coating material due to its inertness and its unique ability to absorb near-IR radiation. Hyeon and Cho described magnetic gold nanoshells (Mag-GNS) consisting of gold nanoshells encapsulating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a novel nanomedical platform for simultaneous diagnostic imaging and thermal therapy []. Monodisperse 7 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles stabilized with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid (BMPA) were covalently attached to amino-modified silica spheres through a direct nucleophilic substitution reaction between the bromo groups and the amino groups. Gold seed nanoparticles were then attached to the residual amino groups of the silica spheres. Finally, a complete 15 nm thick gold shell embedded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles formed around the silica spheres to generate Mag-GNS. To target breast cancer, an anti-HER2/neu antibody was conjugated onto the surfaces of the Mag-GNS. SKBR3 breast cancer cells treated with Mag-GNS could be detected using a clinical MRI system, followed by selective destruction by near-IR radiation.

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles thesis Vb net resume layout

In general, nanoparticles tend to aggregate through hydrophobic interactions or attractive van der Waals forces in an effort to minimize the surface energy. In the blood stream, such aggregates can trigger opsonization, the process by which a particle becomes covered with opsonin proteins, thereby making it more visible to the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), such as RES. The phagocytic mechanisms render nanoparticles ineffective as theranostic devices by removing them from the bloodstream []. Therefore, evading uptake by RES and increasing the blood circulation half-life are major challenges for developing theranostic nanoparticles in clinical applications []. Several methods of camouflaging nanoparticles have been developed to yield 'stealth' nanoparticles, which are invisible to MPS. These approaches interfere with the binding of opsonin proteins to the nanoparticle surfaces in support of a long circulation half-life, thereby increasing the chance that the nanoparticles can effectively target tumor sites. In order to impart stealth properties to the nanoparticles, one of the most promising molecules is the FDA-approved PEG. Natural or synthetic polymers, small organic molecules, and core-shell structures have also been utilized for nanoparticle surface coatings. However, a high surface coverage can decrease binding to and uptake by target cancer cells. This section describes the use of several coating molecules as shielding materials. The optimal surface densities of the coating materials and the targeted ligands will be discussed.

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