Organic Chemistry | Polymerization | Polystyrene
Synthesis and Mechanism of Formation of Syndiotactic Polystyrene Using a (tert-Butylcyclopentadienyl)titanium Complex
The molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis by F1F0 …
This reaction eventually leads to the formation of polystyrene, a portion of which is shown below. Polystyrene prepared by free-radical polymerization is
Chain-reaction polymerization, sometimes called addition polymerization, requires an initiator to start the growth of the reaction. The largest family of polymers 3, vinyl polymers, are produced by chain polymerization reactions. A good example is the free-radical polymerization of styrene, which is initiated by a free radical (R) that reacts with styrene. The compound that is formed still is a free radical, which can react again.
Polystyrene sulfonate - Wikipedia
In aqueous methanol and alcohol media, colloidally stable monodisperse polystyrene microspheres are synthesized using BPO and AIBN as initiators and various PVA concentrations of 0.5–10 wt.% relative to styrene.
Here, we synthesized the polystyrene/polysilsesquioxane (PS/PSQ) core/shell latex particles via emulsion polymerization, which behave as an amusing morphology. First, the nanosized PSQ particles were prepared by the hydrolysis–condensation reaction of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS) in ethanol medium. Subsequently, the as-obtained methacryloxypropylene functionalized PSQ (PMPTS) sol was directly added into the emulsion system of styrene (St) monomer, and PS/PSQ composite particles with core/shell structure were obtained through emulsion polymerization. We found that the structure of the composite particles can be affected by the synthesis parameters such as reaction time, content of PMPTS added in the reaction, amount of coemulsifier, and the pH value of emulsion system, which were systemically explored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in this work. These results indicate that the PMPTS particles in the size of about 5 nm could first absorb onto the surface of PS latex particles so as to assemble in a strawberry-like morphology. The further coalescence among the PMPTS particles would result in a continuous PMPTS shell around the PS core. Moreover, the hollow PSQ capsules were prepared after extraction of the PS core by organic solvent, further confirming the core/shell structure of the as-synthesized PS/PMPTS particles. Meanwhile, we also explored the application of the PS/PSQ core/shell particles as a new kind of Pickering emulsifier in the emulsion polymerization of St, and composite particles with complex patchy morphologies have been obtained finally under different ratios of styrene monomer to PS/PMPTS colloidal emulsifier.
Fast synthesis, formation mechanism, and control of …
Styrene is an example of a vinyl monomer - a small molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds. A few other important vinyl monomers are listed below4. Some of these polymers are synthesized by methods involving initiators other than free radicals - carboanions, carbocations, or coordination compounds, for instance. Vinyl polymers are addition polymers, which have the same atoms as the monomer in their repeat units.
New strategies for synthesis of Janus particles are of essential importance in the advancement of material science and technology. However, it remains a great challenge to synthesize uniform Janus particles with controllable topological and chemical anisotropy. To overcome this challenge, we have recently developed a general emulsion interfacial polymerization approach. This approach can be applicable to a wide variety of vinyl monomers, including positively charged, neutrally charged, and negatively charged monomers. Different from the traditional seed swelling emulsion polymerization that usually involved using cross-linked polystyrene (PS) particles as seeds to produce Janus particles, we preloaded non-cross-linked PS particles in the emulsion system to construct an interfacial polymerization system. However, the role of these non-cross-linked PS particles in the emulsion interfacial polymerization is unclear. In this work, we revealed the role of non-cross-linked PS particles preloaded in emulsion interfacial polymerization for fabricating uniform Janus particles with controllable topology. We found that the introduction of non-cross-linked PS particles could significantly control the topology and uniformity of Janus particles. Theoretical simulation results by dissipative particle dynamics simulation coupled with stochastic reaction model revealed that the polymer chains of PS inside oil droplets play a decisive role in the topographic control of Janus particles. These hydrophobic PS chains could slow down the polymerization inside oil droplets due to shielding effect of the PS chains to the newly formed poly(styrene–divinylbenzene) (PSDVB) nucleus. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that the diverse topology features of Janus particles could be tuned by regulating the concentration of PS polymer and monomers. These results may help us to comprehensively understand the mechanism of emulsion interfacial polymerization methodology and design new functional particle materials.
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate: a cation exchange resin …
Polymer Synthesis of Polystyrene and Nylon-6,6 - Google Sites
Micron-sized polystyrene particles by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization in air: Synthesis and mechanism. Authors.
Polymer Synthesis of Polystyrene and Nylon-6,6
Write the reaction mechanism (showing arrows) of the synthesis of polystyrene
Polymer Chemistry Polymerization Reactions: ..
Living Radical Polymerization of Styrene with Diphenyl Diselenide as a Photoiniferter
Radical polymerization - Wikipedia
Semilogarithmic plots of consumption of styrene with time are linear over the initial part of the polymerization, indicating that the number of active titanium centers remains constant during this time.
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