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The Journal of Biological Chemistry

The researchers attributed the decrease in calories to the higher satiating effect of protein compared to carbohydrate.

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Gannon and Nuttall point out that, shortly after that calculation was reported, a number of researchers showed that the ingestion of protein by subjects with and without diabetes did not result in an increase in blood glucose levels.

American Society for Microbiology journal which covers all aspects of virology

Our medicinal chemistry efforts led to the discovery of 115h (GRK2 IC50 = 18 nM), which was obtained the cocrystal structure with human GRK2 and an inhibitor of GRK2 that potentiates β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-mediated cAMP accumulation and prevents internalization of βARs in β2AR-expressing HEK293 cells treated with isoproterenol.

A Science Odyssey: You Try It: DNA Workshop - PBS

There is little research published in peer-reviewed journals to support the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets.

Long-term studies are necessary to determine how long individuals can comfortably consume a high-protein diet in the world outside of the research lab.

Although long-term research is needed, a better direction to study may be a moderate protein and carbohydrate, low-fat diet instead of the current popular high-protein, higher-fat, low-carbohydrate diets.

An embryonic cell divides again and again

Exercise of both the resistance and nonresistance types appears to depress muscle protein synthesis (MPS), whereas muscle ..

AB - Some specific transcription factors are essential for memory consolidation across species. However, it is still unclear whether only the activation of constitutively expressed forms of these conserved transcription factors is involved in memory consolidation or their de novo synthesis also occurs after learning. This question has remained unanswered partly because of the lack of an efficient method for the determination of copy numbers of particular mRNAs in single neurons, which allows the detection of new transcription at the cellular level. Here we applied a newly developed protocol of single-cell quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to single neurons playing an important role in associative learning. Specifically, we examined the changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of a highly conserved transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), in the paired B2 motoneurons of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. These buccal neurons are involved in the motor control of feeding behavior, with a potentially important role in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Single-cell qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in LymC/EBP mRNA copy numbers in the B2 motoneurons during memory consolidation after CTA training. By contrast, isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting of extracts of the buccal ganglia showed that translation and phosphorylation levels of LymC/EBP significantly increased during memory consolidation. The C/EBP-like immunoreactivity in the B2 motoneurons, which are the major immunopositive component in the buccal ganglia, also significantly increased during memory consolidation, suggesting that the main source of increase in the level of protein in the buccal ganglia are the B2 motoneurons. Thus, early memory consolidation after CTA learning in L. stagnalis involves both the rapid synthesis and phosphorylation of LymC/EBP as well as the rapid breakdown of LymC/EBP mRNA in the neural network controlling feeding, suggesting that all of these processes play a role in the function of C/EBP in memory consolidation.

N2 - Some specific transcription factors are essential for memory consolidation across species. However, it is still unclear whether only the activation of constitutively expressed forms of these conserved transcription factors is involved in memory consolidation or their de novo synthesis also occurs after learning. This question has remained unanswered partly because of the lack of an efficient method for the determination of copy numbers of particular mRNAs in single neurons, which allows the detection of new transcription at the cellular level. Here we applied a newly developed protocol of single-cell quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to single neurons playing an important role in associative learning. Specifically, we examined the changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of a highly conserved transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), in the paired B2 motoneurons of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. These buccal neurons are involved in the motor control of feeding behavior, with a potentially important role in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Single-cell qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in LymC/EBP mRNA copy numbers in the B2 motoneurons during memory consolidation after CTA training. By contrast, isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting of extracts of the buccal ganglia showed that translation and phosphorylation levels of LymC/EBP significantly increased during memory consolidation. The C/EBP-like immunoreactivity in the B2 motoneurons, which are the major immunopositive component in the buccal ganglia, also significantly increased during memory consolidation, suggesting that the main source of increase in the level of protein in the buccal ganglia are the B2 motoneurons. Thus, early memory consolidation after CTA learning in L. stagnalis involves both the rapid synthesis and phosphorylation of LymC/EBP as well as the rapid breakdown of LymC/EBP mRNA in the neural network controlling feeding, suggesting that all of these processes play a role in the function of C/EBP in memory consolidation.

Native whey protein with high levels of leucine results in similar post-exercise muscular anabolic responses as regular whey protein: a randomized controlled trial
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The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Some specific transcription factors are essential for memory consolidation across species. However, it is still unclear whether only the activation of constitutively expressed forms of these conserved transcription factors is involved in memory consolidation or their de novo synthesis also occurs after learning. This question has remained unanswered partly because of the lack of an efficient method for the determination of copy numbers of particular mRNAs in single neurons, which allows the detection of new transcription at the cellular level. Here we applied a newly developed protocol of single-cell quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to single neurons playing an important role in associative learning. Specifically, we examined the changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of a highly conserved transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), in the paired B2 motoneurons of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. These buccal neurons are involved in the motor control of feeding behavior, with a potentially important role in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Single-cell qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in LymC/EBP mRNA copy numbers in the B2 motoneurons during memory consolidation after CTA training. By contrast, isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting of extracts of the buccal ganglia showed that translation and phosphorylation levels of LymC/EBP significantly increased during memory consolidation. The C/EBP-like immunoreactivity in the B2 motoneurons, which are the major immunopositive component in the buccal ganglia, also significantly increased during memory consolidation, suggesting that the main source of increase in the level of protein in the buccal ganglia are the B2 motoneurons. Thus, early memory consolidation after CTA learning in L. stagnalis involves both the rapid synthesis and phosphorylation of LymC/EBP as well as the rapid breakdown of LymC/EBP mRNA in the neural network controlling feeding, suggesting that all of these processes play a role in the function of C/EBP in memory consolidation.

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