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is a source of energy for endergonic reactions.

ATP is created through a complex enzyme-driven process. There are a couple of ways this works in cells:

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The disorder you generated exceeds the order you made.

The glycolytic pathway is an arrangement of these kinds of
coupled reactions, where exergonic steps push or pull endergonic steps, with the
favorable net free energy change of the steps taken together, allowing the
series of reactions to go on.

The evaporation of water is an example of a spontaneous physical change.

Now, the answer to your question can be found in any basic biology text book, but sometimes, there is so much information packed into such a text book that it can be difficult to extract the information you need or more often, to view all of that information in a larger context. Let's try to tackle your question in several parts.

It is measured in calories or kilocalories.

This means that the entropy of the universe increases for every change that occurs.

There are 3 main pathways for harvesting energy from glucose:
Glycolysis - begins glucose metabolism in all cells to produce 2 molecules of pyruvate. Occurs outside of mitochondria, usually in cytoplasm.

Now this brings us to the next part - how do we go from glucose to ATP? This is achieved through the process of "oxidation" - and this is carried out through a series of metabolic pathways. Complex chemical transformations in the cell occur in a series of separate reactions to form each pathway, and each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Interestingly, metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms, from bacteria to humans. In eukaryotes (plants and animals) many of the metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain reactions occurring in specific organelles. Basically, cells trap free energy released from the breakdown (metabolism) of glucose. This energy gets trapped in the ATP as it converts from ADP to ATP by the addition of phosphate.

Enthalpy is measured in calories or kilocalories.

is an organic catalyst ...Review of endergonic and exergonic reactions.

By thermodynamic standards, work, a form of energy, is defined as moving from the...


Energy, exergonic reactions, and endergonic reactions.

-respiration, in which pyruvate is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, which creates a lot of ATP per unit of pyruvate (16 I think). Obviously, glycolysis has to happen first, in order to make the pyruvate. This happens in the mitochondrion, which likewise exists in both animals and plants.

This is the energy that can be used for a specific purpose and is available from a process.
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  • The free energy change, delta G is neither positive nor negative.

    Evaporation of a liquid is spontaneous and the particles are more disordered in the vapor than in the liquid.

  • The DS for the reaction at 298 Kelvin is 0.804 calorie/degree kelvin.

    When wood burns the solid is converted to water vapor (a gas) and carbon dioxide another gas.

  • Graphite is more stable than diamonds.

    The calories used to spread the gas molecuels around is "lost" and not useable.

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the more stable form of carbon, graphite, is more common.

Photosynthetic organisms use energy from sunlight to synthesize their own fuels. They can convert harvested sunlight into chemical energy (including ATP) to then drive the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. When they synthesize the carbohydrates, oxygen gets released. Globally, more than 10 billion tons of carbon is "fixed" by plants every year - this means that carbon molecules are converted from being part of a simple gas (carbon dioxide) into more complex, reduced molecules (carbohydrates), making carbon available as food for non-photosynthesizers (and of course, providing oxygen). They use some of the carbohydrate for their own growth and reproduction. It is pretty remarkable when you think about it - have you been to Sequoia National Park or seen the redwoods along our northwest coast? Massive trees, right? Think about the fact that most of that mass is in the form of carbon that was pulled out of the air as carbon dioxide!

diamonds are not forever contrary to the advertising campaigns.

The process of photosynthesis is two-part. First, there are the light reactions, where light is converted into chemical energy (a reduced electron carrier and ATP). This occurs in the thylakoids (stacked membranes) of the chloroplasts. The ATP and electron carriers are then used in a second set of reactions, called the light-independent reactions. This also occurs in the chloroplasts, but in an area called the stroma. In this case, carbon dioxide gets used to produce sugars in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle, C4 photosynthesis, and crassulacean acid metabolism. You can look in any basic bio textbook to see how much "energy" or "sugar" is produced in each step of the process.

What is the sign for the entropy change?

First, we need to know what ATP really is - chemically, it is known as adenosine triphosphate. ATP is a usable form of energy for cells - the energy is "trapped" in a chemical bond that can be released and used to drive other reactions that require energy (endergonic reactions).

He explains how living organisms utilize free energy in the Universe

In non-photosynthesizers, the fuel has to be consumed. The most common chemical fuel is the sugar glucose (C6H12O6)... Other molecules, such as fats or proteins, can also supply energy, but (usually) they have to first be converted to glucose or some intermediate that can be used in glucose metabolism.

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