Compare energy input and output of the light reaction
1.3.1 Input,Output, And Storage Devices | Computer …
What Are The Input And Output For Both The Light …
The term "watts per gallon" is getting more archaic with the newer T-2, T-5, CFL, the SHO, & especially the new reef compatible LED lights.
Even within LED Lights, one 30 watt LED is not equal to another 30 watt LED.
An example, you cannot compare a 30 Watt TMC Ocean Blue to a 130 watt EcoTech Radion. However if you were to use an equal wattage of the TMC Ocean Blue or Reef White, you would have more actual useful light energy (PUR) with these per watt of energy used (input energy) than the EcoTech (this is not to say the EcoTech Radion isn't reef capable LED).
Wattage input of lights versus PAR/PUR output is where the actual watts used when comparing one light to another is simply not at all accurate as there is no formula for the PAR or PUR based on input wattage. Keep in mind that PUR has nothing to do with input wattage, and PAR can vary due to light efficiency such fan use (fans waste input energy/watts), lenses, re-strike (in fluorescent lights in particular), and circuitry (such as daisy chaining of emitters common to many discount LEDs).
An example; the Fluval, Finnex & Current Satellite are all discount LEDs that daisy chain their plethora of low quality/output emitters versus LEDs such as th Aqua Illuminations HD, EcoTech, or AAP AquaRay which use advanced circuitry/drivers with a lower number of HO quality emitters.
The result is a much higher PAR output per wattage input. An example would be the Fluval Fresh & Plant 2.0 A3990 which uses 32 watts of input energy with a PAR output about 70 mmol at 400mm. This is .45 watt of input energy per mm of PAR compared to an AquRay NP 2000 at only .08 watt of input energy per point of PAR.
Apples to oranges comparisons of a LED of 75 watts to a T12 cool white Fluorescents also of 75 watts also fails. These cool white T12s will simply not even be close to "useful light energy" output at 75 watts as the LEDs, especially the higher end LEDs).
The bottom line is 'watts per gallon' can be used when comparisons are "apples to apples" such as one Patented High output LED emitter of the SAME BRAND to another, but NOT when comparing a T8, to a T5 to a T2, etc.
The picture above depicts both full solar radiation that reaches the earth as well as how a few different man-made light sources fit into the visible/PAR aspect of this spectrum.
What is noteworthy is how much radiation falls outside the PAR, in particular the longer frequency wave lengths going into radio waves. There is much that we also do not know, since photosynthetic plants, zooanthellic algae, etc. might also be using radiant energy we do not know about. What we do know is that since UVC is not reaching the earth's surface and that even UVB only reaches in small amounts (if at all during certain times of the day and seasons), that it is likely this is mostly useless for our application.
Photosynthesis - perfect chemistry in Nature
Since it is well established that a photon is a photon and it is the quantity that certainly makes the most difference (PAR is quantity), we still cannot ignore the quality of the photon of which the only difference of a photon is the wavelength and frequency (energy).
The first graph shows how red, green, & red light growth based on weight of lettuce. It is clear from the picture that the green light is only 50% of the efficiency of red & only 20% of the efficiency of blue.
The second photo demonstrates how one light (the Metal Halide) has much more input energy (joules) and even after the known massive loss of input energy, it still has more photons (expressed as lumens here) than the 6500K Generic Gro Light LED, yet the outcome of growth is dramatic!
For this reason it is noteworthy that while any light within the PAR range can be used, providing light energy outside certain proven/evolved aspects of PAS can result in poor growth or allowing of less desirable algae to out compete plants or coral we are attempting to cultivate. This why it is a FACT that while certain lights may keep photosynthetic life, less than optimum spectrums found in many of the inferior lights will either produce lessor results and/or require more input light energy for the same results as say a high PAS & PUR light such as the AAP AquaRay.
An Experiment to Investigate the Effect of Light …
A CRI of 100 has a heavy red spectrum. The color temperature is 2700 K for incandescent light and 3000 K for halogen light. An incandescent lamp, virtually by definition, has a Color Rendering Index (CRI) close to 100.
This does not mean that an incandescent lamp is a perfect color rendering light source. It is not. It is very weak in blue, as anyone who has tried to sort out navy blues, royal blues, & black under low levels of incandescent lighting.
*Chlorophyll synthesis; occurring in chloroplasts, this is the chemical reactions and pathways by the plant hormone cytokinin soon after exposure to the correct Nanometers wave length , that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis and exists in several forms, the most abundant being Chlorophyll A.
This results in continued growth of a plant, algae, zooxanthellae and the ability to "feed" & propagate. Without this aspect of PAR, zooxanthellae & plants cannot properly "feed" propagate resulting is stunted freshwater plant growth, and eventually poor coral health in reef tanks.
This is also known as the Photosynthetic Action Spectrum (PAS).
Environmental Science: Photosynthesis Lab - Analysis
Cellular Respiration Animation - Sumanas, Inc.
06-11-2009 · What are the inputs and outputs of the Calvin Cycle
Aquarium Lighting Information Guide | Reef Planted | …
What is the form of energy that is an input to photosynthesis and the form of that is an output of ..
There are many things we do daily that require energy
What are the inputs and outputs for the dark reaction in the photosynthesis
We get energy from food, so breakfast is an important meal
Lights as they apply to aquarium use have evolved/changed considerable since I have been in the hobby & professionally employed in aquarium set-up & design.
We often used "hardware store" warm white T12 fluorescent lights, just in larger "quantities" to make up for the poor "quality" of light, even while planted freshwater could be kept, not so with ANY photosynthetic reef life.
Early on lights such as the "Aquarilux" came out which still was heavier on the "warm" colors, it also had more blue.
Later the Trichromatics & Triton lamps came out with spectrums focusing on the daylight 6500 Kelvin temperature, these made growing planted aquariums easier with less lights to do the same job as earlier lights.
We also had actinic blue lights become available, these mixed with other lights made it possible in the beginning to keep some photosynthetic reef life, although initially these did not thrive. Later T6 & T5 advancements along with Metal Halide lights allowed us to not only keep delicate photosynthetic reef life, but for this life to thrive.
We now have T2, SHO, & LEDs of which the later have lowered considerably the input energy for the quantity of output energy of light that we need for our aquarium keeping applications.
Cycling Energy Energy does not cycle the way nutrients and atoms do
Water penetration is another consideration. Higher frequency "red" light energy is quickly filtered out in water, & many light energy requiring plants, corals, etc. have adapted to light energies found at certain depths of water they naturally reside in.
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Since I have seen a wide variance in quality of build as well as quality of output similar to with LED lights, I recommend going with the best and for this I would recommend the premium Giesemann T5 lights which have unique phosphor blends that are characterized by exceptionally high output performance, long life span, consistent coloration combined with high levels of spectral stability over time. In other words both quantity (PAR) and quality (PUR) of light.
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