Transcription, Translation and Replication from the perspective of ..
20/08/2011 · BIO101 - Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation
Protein Synthesis - Department of Chemistry
The process of copying of the genetic information from one strand of DNA into RNA is termed as transcription. This is the first step required for synthesis. Transcription is also based on the complementarity of the strand. Also, only one strand of the DNA is converted into . One transcription unit consists of 3 regions: A promoter, the Structural Gene and a Terminator. The promoter is located towards the 5’ end and defines the template and coding strand. The terminator is towards the 3’ end defining the end of transcription process. The is transcribed in 5' to 3’ direction by polymerase.
For initiation of the translation process, the ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon recognized by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome then proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, the complexes formed by amino acids are linked to tRNA, sub sequentially to bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complimentary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by the DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, release factor binds to the stop codon, thus terminating the translation stage and completing the protein synthesis process. The complete polypeptide is released from the .
What is Protein Synthesis Transcription? (with picture)
The process of polymerization of amino acids to form a polypeptide is called as Translation. It is the second and final step of protein synthesis. The order into which the amino acids are arranged is defined by the bases in mRNA (messenger). Ribosome is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different . It is in inactive stage and exists as two subunits, one large and other small. The synthesis of begins when the small subunit encounters an mRNA. The ribosome also acts as a catalyst for the formation of bonds.
The amino acids are joined to form proteins by peptide bonds. The formation of peptide bonds requires a good amount of energy. Therefore, in the first phase of translation for protein synthesis, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA (transfer RNA). This process is called as charging of the tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA. If two such charged tRNA are brought close enough, the formation of peptide bond between them is favored energetically. This function occurs inside the , as it contains two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind to and thus be close enough for bonding.
Transcription is the first of overall two protein synthesis steps
The main protein synthesis steps ..
Protein Synthesis Steps Described With Images.
Browse mechanism of transcription in protein synthesis 10 pictures, photos, images, GIFs, and videos on Photobucket
Protein Synthesis – transcription then translation
The processes of transcription and translation continue to be areas which ..
Protein Synthesis Transcription Wiring Diagrams With Images
is from DNA to RNA via the process of transcription, and thence to protein via ..
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