Describe the discovery of the Greek scientist Van Helmont and what ..
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As smoke cleared and dust settled, literally, from the , the few surviving mammals and birds crept from their refuges, seeds and spores grew into plants, and the began, which is also called the Age of Mammals, as they have dominated this era. The Cenozoic’s first period is the , which ran from about 66 mya to 23 mya. As this essay enters the era of most interest to most humans, I will slice the timeline a little finer and use the concept of epochs. The Paleogene’s first epoch is called the (c. 66 to 56 mya).
Neanderthals seem to have become permanently separated from their kin when the ice sheets grew about 300 kya, and between 250 kya and 200 kya two glacial events happened, which roughly coincided with the final exit of and the appearance of either or that . The previous interglacial period began 130 kya and ended 114 kya, and it appears that left Africa for the first time about then; evidence is , and they may have traveled much farther. When ice sheets advanced, Neanderthals retreated southward, and one controversial area is the overlap of Neanderthals and in Israel during that interglacial period. Did Neanderthals wipe out those first migrants from Africa? Did they interbreed?
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Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .
Bonobos are the only non-human African great ape exception to infanticide, and are also the only great ape species that does not sexually coerce females, humans included. The reason seems to be the social organization that arose from a plentiful food supply that allowed for larger groups in which females males actively reduced male violence. Many behaviors within and between bonobo bands are unknown with chimps. A male bonobo will remain with his mother for her entire life, and male bonobos do not vie for dominance. Instead, bonobos have a sexuality that no other animal on Earth has remotely approached. They settle nearly everything with sex. Female on female is common, particularly when bands meet, but , with the sole exception of mothers and sons, as the aversion to inbreeding is rooted deeply in animals and is also responsible for the human incest taboo. Bonobo societies are and seem to live by the slogan, “Make love, not war.” But it started with their economy, when their primary and dominant competitor moved away. In recent studies, the only bonobo sexual coercive acts observed are females abusing males, which is also rare. A likely influence on ending infanticide is that female bonobos, like humans, conceal their ovulation, so males are not cued to compete to be the father. Also, since virtually all bonobos have sex all the time, there is no way for bonobos to determine paternity.
Photosynthesis - History Of Research - Plants, …
but the pollution will inflict an awesome price on Canada, as the tar sands region becomes a "national sacrifice zone." That low EROI reflects highly detrimental impacts. A huge proportion of Canada's natural gas supply will be needed for , and multi-billion-dollar pipelines and other infrastructure projects are proceeding (but delayed in 2015). Beleaguered Canadian Native American nations are overwhelmed by the industrial initiatives, which are . I heard from local friends in the summer of 2014 that the projected pipeline to the nearby waters of British Columbia will present great environmental risk, and the only question is not disastrous oil spills will happen, but , , and they will be. One of Earth's most diverse aquatic ecosystems will be put at risk (Puget Sound is in second place, next to the Great Barrier Reef).
The idea of discretionary income is probably the financial economy's closest concept to , and the idea of savings is the financial economy's closest idea to stored energy. As the American middle class has been shrinking, discretionary income has been vanishing. That trend happened in history's richest and most powerful nation during the 40 years since energy consumption began declining. Global oil production peaked in 2006, and the rest of the world's nations will decline like the USA has, but from a far lower initial plateau. Those are the important measures, not financial ones. In a world of scarcity, the exchange function of economics assumes great importance at the social level, as people scrap for their piece of the scarce economic pie. But fighting over slices does not help grow the pie. In a world of abundance, money and financial concepts truly become meaningless.
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which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek ..
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Those energy concepts are real ones that all economies face, and financial measures only reflect them. In the USA, just , Peak Oil was . In 1973, the first oil crisis hit, and have declined since then. Wages were only a reflection of energy consumption, which also peaked in the 1970s for the USA and by that real wages per hour have. The USA’s declining standard of living since the 1970s was minor compared to the devastation inflicted on developing nations. The was initiated by the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Many nations have yet to recover. When the oil price shocks hit, and other measures were inflicted by Western institutions on developing nations. As people such as , those policies were intentionally used to enslave those nations. On the world stage, the self-image promoted by the West is that of blundering do-gooders. As people such as , it is a false narrative designed to hide corrupt motivation from the outset. It is simply more of that . I have written a great deal elsewhere on , how the resembles fairy tales, how professions and industries have , how the , just like genocidal invasions, were always economically motivated, usually to secure energy resources. This essay does not need to belabor those trends, but anybody not can clearly see that the game being played on the global stage is the same one that has been played: economically exploiting others. Because industrialized civilization is beginning to run out of the energy sources that the West used to industrialize, a universal decline in humanity’s standard of living has begun. The USA has transitioned from the land of opportunity to a deindustrializing economy in which bankers and other capitalists are designed to rob one class in favor of another. The aspect of those machinations is painfully obvious. The mind-control techniques that Orwell and Huxley wrote about have been turned into sciences, and there are even “competitions” between their dystopian visions to see .
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Once the energy is delivered into a gas tank or turbine boiler, the efficiency of turning that chemical energy into mechanical energy is what first dealt with. Mechanical energy is called , whether it comes from human muscles, the muscles of draft animals, or machines. Also, the concept of power is critical, which is the amount of work performed over a time period. How quickly energy can be released and used is the crux of how rockets work, for instance. To get more power, more sophisticated technology was required, from taller masts in sailing ships to stronger components for watermills to high-performance engines (which run hotter with greater pressures). Generating more power was always a technological feat but was dependent on how much energy could be delivered and utilized and how quickly.
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Almost all traditional alternative energy sources and related technologies have low EROIs (direct solar 2-to-8, wind turbines 18, geothermal less than 5). Those alternative sources all have the same problems that wind and water power had before the Industrial Revolution and more, such as , not much energy is available to begin with, and they all create environmental impacts that, although not as great as fossil and nuclear fuels, are still considerable. Wind turbines not only kill vast numbers of birds each year, but they are noisy and create inland turbulence. In order to replace fossil fuels, there would need to be about four hundred times as many windmills on Earth as there already are, and I have driven through several windmill farms in the USA, which are spread across many miles of suitable terrain. In order to raise humanity to the American standard of living, there would need to be far more than a thousand times as many windmills. There may not be enough suitable land on Earth to host those windmills, and windmills are considered the most viable traditional alternative. Direct solar, including photovoltaics, makes the most sense in deserts. It does not deliver much energy, but it is considered the next most viable alternative, and there would have to be about four thousand times as many photovoltaic arrays as already exist to raise the world to the American standard of living. Again, finding the land to host them is a problem, and the materials need to be mined. There are maintenance issues and other problems. Rock is not a good conductor, so heat is rapidly depleted from the geothermal source and it quickly goes “dry,” and has to go “fallow” to recover.
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