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McCombe PA, Wilson R, Prentice RL. Results of testing for anti-GM1 antibodies. J Clin Neurosci 2000; 7:209-12.

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Gm1 ganglioside synthesis essay - Coomera Smiles Dental

AB - Developmental changes in ganglioside composition and biosynthesis were studied in rat brain between embryonic day (E) 14 and birth. In E14 brains, GM3 and GD3 were predominant. At E16, 'b' series gangliosides, such as GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, increased in content. After E18, 'a' series gangliosides such as GM1, GD1a, and GT1a increased in content, and the content of GM3 and GD3 markedly decreased. Because of these changes in composition, we determined the activities, in homogenates of embryonic brains, of two key enzymes of ganglioside synthesis: sialyltransferase for the synthesis of GD3 from GM3 and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase for GM2 synthesis from GM3. The sialyltransferase activity GM3 → GD3) was constant between E14 and E18 but decreased rapidly from E18 to birth. In contrast, the N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity (GM3 → GM2) increased between E14 and E18 but was constant from E18 to birth. These changes in ganglioside composition and enzymatic activities indicate that during development there is a shift from synthesis of the simplest gangliosides of the 'a' and 'b' pathways to synthesis of the more complex gangliosides.

Includes ANNA1 (Hu), asialo-GM1, GALOP IgM, GD1a, GD1b, GM1, MAG, SGPG, and sulfatide antibodies.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the protein huntingtin (Htt). HD neurons are dysfunctional at multiple levels and have increased susceptibility to stress and apoptotic stimuli. We have discovered that synthesis of the ganglioside GM1 is reduced in fibroblasts from HD patients and in cell and animal models of HD, and that decreased GM1 levels contribute to heighten HD cell susceptibility to apoptosis. The apoptotic susceptibility is recapitulated through inhibition of ganglioside synthesis in wild-type striatal cells, suggesting that decreased GM1 levels might be one of the key events leading to HD pathogenesis and progression. Administration of GM1 restores ganglioside levels in HD cells and promotes activation of AKT and phosphorylation of mutant Htt, leading to decreased mutant Htt toxicity and increased survival of HD cells. Our data identify GM1 as a potential treatment for HD.

Synthesis Gm1 essay ganglioside - Baby Hunters

N2 - Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the protein huntingtin (Htt). HD neurons are dysfunctional at multiple levels and have increased susceptibility to stress and apoptotic stimuli. We have discovered that synthesis of the ganglioside GM1 is reduced in fibroblasts from HD patients and in cell and animal models of HD, and that decreased GM1 levels contribute to heighten HD cell susceptibility to apoptosis. The apoptotic susceptibility is recapitulated through inhibition of ganglioside synthesis in wild-type striatal cells, suggesting that decreased GM1 levels might be one of the key events leading to HD pathogenesis and progression. Administration of GM1 restores ganglioside levels in HD cells and promotes activation of AKT and phosphorylation of mutant Htt, leading to decreased mutant Htt toxicity and increased survival of HD cells. Our data identify GM1 as a potential treatment for HD.

AB - Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the protein huntingtin (Htt). HD neurons are dysfunctional at multiple levels and have increased susceptibility to stress and apoptotic stimuli. We have discovered that synthesis of the ganglioside GM1 is reduced in fibroblasts from HD patients and in cell and animal models of HD, and that decreased GM1 levels contribute to heighten HD cell susceptibility to apoptosis. The apoptotic susceptibility is recapitulated through inhibition of ganglioside synthesis in wild-type striatal cells, suggesting that decreased GM1 levels might be one of the key events leading to HD pathogenesis and progression. Administration of GM1 restores ganglioside levels in HD cells and promotes activation of AKT and phosphorylation of mutant Htt, leading to decreased mutant Htt toxicity and increased survival of HD cells. Our data identify GM1 as a potential treatment for HD.

Gangliosides - Glycosphingolipids | Sigma-Aldrich

AB - Selective single and double labelling of the natural ganglioside GM1. enables one to introduce various markers into different parts of the glycosphingolipid molecule without changing the natural skeleton. To that end, N-Fmoc-2amino-, N-Fmoc-18-amino- and S-(ethoxythiocarbonyl)-18mercaptostearic acids have been prepared, and. coupled with the primary amino group in the sphingosine part of lyso-GM1 and. deAc-deAcyl-GM1. gangliosides. The products of these coupling reactions - building blocks 16a, 16b, 16c, 26 and 27 - may be used for the synthesis of GM1 derivatives with one or two fluorescent dye moieties or other labels of various polarities. Examples of various labelling strategies, using hydrophilic and lipophilic photostable fluorescent dyes, have been made available. The GM1. derivatives 17a, 22a and 23c labelled with the fluorescent dye ATTO 647N or the doubly labelled derivative 25b can be used as probes in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (in conventional, microscopy or stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy) to study the diffusion of lipid analogues in model or live cell membranes.

Taking into account the above observations that abnormal ganglioside levels are often implicated in diseases of the , scientists began to question whether HD may also involve ganglioside irregularities. It was found in 2010 that the production of GM1, a specific type of ganglioside, appears to be impaired not only in different of HD, but also in cells directly derived from human HD patients. In this study, Simonetta Sipione and her research group at the University of Alberta first used an model of HD by growing rat striatal cells that have been engineered to express . By using a that specifically identifies the GM1 ganglioside, they found that the levels of GM1 in the cells expressing were significantly lower compared to normal cells. More importantly, they observed the same results when they performed the experiment on skin cells isolated directly from human HD patients. The researchers also found that the levels of an involved in the production of GM1 were decreased, suggesting that the reason for the lowered levels of GM1 in HD is because of defects in GM1 production.

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Salmonella and Salmonellosis - Textbook of Bacteriology

N2 - Selective single and double labelling of the natural ganglioside GM1. enables one to introduce various markers into different parts of the glycosphingolipid molecule without changing the natural skeleton. To that end, N-Fmoc-2amino-, N-Fmoc-18-amino- and S-(ethoxythiocarbonyl)-18mercaptostearic acids have been prepared, and. coupled with the primary amino group in the sphingosine part of lyso-GM1 and. deAc-deAcyl-GM1. gangliosides. The products of these coupling reactions - building blocks 16a, 16b, 16c, 26 and 27 - may be used for the synthesis of GM1 derivatives with one or two fluorescent dye moieties or other labels of various polarities. Examples of various labelling strategies, using hydrophilic and lipophilic photostable fluorescent dyes, have been made available. The GM1. derivatives 17a, 22a and 23c labelled with the fluorescent dye ATTO 647N or the doubly labelled derivative 25b can be used as probes in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (in conventional, microscopy or stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy) to study the diffusion of lipid analogues in model or live cell membranes.

Bacterial Protein Toxins - Online Textbook of Bacteriology

N2 - Epsilon-toxin (ET) of Clostridiumperfringens, which causes fatal enterotoxemia in ungulates, was previously shown to bind to and form a heptameric pore within the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of MDCK cells. Depletion of cholesterol has also been shown to decrease the cytotoxicity of ET and its heptamerization. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in sphingolipids, other DRM components of MDCK cells, on the cells' susceptibility to ET. Treatment with fumonisin B1 and PDMP, inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid syntheses, respectively, increased the susceptibility, while D609, a sphingomyelin synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The exogenous addition of ganglioside GM1 dramatically decreased the ET binding, heptamerization and cytotoxicity. These effects were shown not to be due to ET binding to GM1 or to denaturation of ET. We also found that the ET cytotoxicity towards MDCK cells decreased with an increase in culture time. In accordance with the resistance observed for prolonged cultured cells, GM3, a major ganglioside component, increased and sialidase treatment increased their susceptibility. These results suggest that membrane-anchored sialic acid of GM3 within DRMs inhibits ET binding, leading to prevention of the heptamerization of ET and cell death. It is also suggested that sialidase produced by this organism aids the targeting of ET to MDCK cells.

Value Assignment Web - Test Setup Edit - QCNet

AB - Epsilon-toxin (ET) of Clostridiumperfringens, which causes fatal enterotoxemia in ungulates, was previously shown to bind to and form a heptameric pore within the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of MDCK cells. Depletion of cholesterol has also been shown to decrease the cytotoxicity of ET and its heptamerization. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in sphingolipids, other DRM components of MDCK cells, on the cells' susceptibility to ET. Treatment with fumonisin B1 and PDMP, inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid syntheses, respectively, increased the susceptibility, while D609, a sphingomyelin synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The exogenous addition of ganglioside GM1 dramatically decreased the ET binding, heptamerization and cytotoxicity. These effects were shown not to be due to ET binding to GM1 or to denaturation of ET. We also found that the ET cytotoxicity towards MDCK cells decreased with an increase in culture time. In accordance with the resistance observed for prolonged cultured cells, GM3, a major ganglioside component, increased and sialidase treatment increased their susceptibility. These results suggest that membrane-anchored sialic acid of GM3 within DRMs inhibits ET binding, leading to prevention of the heptamerization of ET and cell death. It is also suggested that sialidase produced by this organism aids the targeting of ET to MDCK cells.

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