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Distraction-conflict - Wikipedia

All of the athletes spoke of listening to music before a game to block out the outside distractions that they were experiencing within their environment.

Distraction Hypothesis The basic premise of the distraction hypothesis is that from PSY 257 at Pace

Kirschenbaum, D. S., Ordman, A. M., Tomarken, A. J., & Holtzbauer, R. (1982). Effects of differential self-monitoring and level of mastery on sports performance: brain power bowling. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 335-342.


Abstract Impact of Reading for Pleasure Versus School - The Read more about affective, responses, participants, enjoyment, distraction and anxiety.

A review by Farmer et al. [Farmer ME, Locker BZ, et al.: Physical activity and depressive symptoms: The NHANESI epidemiologic follow-up study. ] examined the association between physical activity as it relates to the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. The authors cite several cross- sectional studies that report a high association between regular physical activity and low depression incidence in adolescents and the elderly. Once such study of 5,061 individuals by Steptoe and Butler [Sports participation and emotional wellbeing in adolescents. Lancet 1996;347:1789-1792] suggestted that vigorous physical activity was associated with reduced emotional distress. However, in cross-sectional studies it is not necessarily clear whether reduced emotional stress is a result of activity; an alternative explanation is that those with low stress levels are more inclined to exercise. Therefore, the authors concluded that randomized control trials are needed before concluding that exercise is an effective means of preventing depression.

Once goal setting has been developed, the ability to self-monitor becomes essential because attention to internal and external cues, through greater self-awareness, leads to faster and more appropriate control of intervention strategies. Attention to internal states (thoughts, feeling, sensations) and external states (bodily movement and environment) is a different phenomenon from attentional styles, though there is overlap between the two. Attentional styles involve the relationship of concentration and focus, or perception selection, to a dynamic environment (Zaichkowsky, 1984). Attentional styles can range from broad-external focus of attention (optimal for reading complex sport situations and assessing the environment, i.e., good anticipation skills), broad-internal focus of attention (optimal for analyzing sport within the context of strategies and plans, and for future anticipated events, i.e., quick learners), narrow-external focus of attention (able to pay attention on the necessary stimuli at the right moments with the correct responses), and narrow-internal focus of attention (ability to psyche oneself up and calm oneself down) (Nideffer, 1981). There are degrees and combinations of the aforementioned foci of attention across and within individuals. How much of these types of attentional styles, and their combinations, is a product of personality and/or trainable is still unclear, but attentional styles appear to be related to the degree of internal and external distraction (Singer et al., 1991), and the degree of conscious and automatic control an individual possesses for a given task (Hardy, Mullen, & Jones, 1996). That is, it is the ability of the athlete to intervene and separate important mental content from non-important derived from specific stimuli, and to know when to consciously over-ride actions or to allow automatic processes to continue. This process is governed by the skill of the individual to self-monitor effectively.

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The effects of tempo and disposition in music on perceived exertion, brain waves, and moods during aerobic exercise (Master's thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1985).

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