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In one phase of photosynthesis water is ..

they also need a small amount of it in solution to help facilitate the function; water provides this as well

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Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis

Transpiration
During photosynthesis, water evaporates from the surface of the leaves in a process called transpiration. This occurs when stomata, a kind of pore, open on the leaf to allow for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Indeed, some of the oxygen that the plant releases is contained in the water vapor that is transpired. Not only does the transpiration effectively provide the space into which the essential carbon dioxide can flow, it also prompts the plant to take up more water from the soil (bringing with it nutrients), so helping to keeping the internal system of the plant in balance. It also keeps the plant cool – think of transpiration as being a bit like sweating in humans!

describe how structures in plant cells function in photosynthesis

The soil is composed of many different sized particles. With this simple experiment you can separate the main components of the soil and evaluate their proportions.
1 - Go into a field an collect a sample of soil. Put it in a jar of water. Stir it well and let it settle. Observe and describe the different layers of materials.
2 - In water, particles settle more quickly the bigger they are. It is possible to use this property to determine the amount of each component of the soil. Put 3 parts water and 1 part of soil in the container (try 1 cup soil and three cups of water in a quart jar); shake the container for 5 minutes and let the material set. With reference to the figure 1, after 40 seconds measure the thickness of sediment. Call this A; after 30 minutes measure again and call this B; after 24 hours measure C. Now, by subtraction, you can determine the thickness of the main layers: C-B = layer of clay, B-A = layer of silt, A = layer of gravel and sand. Using a sieve with 2 mm holes (less than 1/8 inches), you can separate the gravel from the sand and determine their ratio. On the basis of these data, calculate the content (%) of each component of the soil sample.
3 - Repeat the same experiment with soil collected in other places or that have a different geological origin (i.e: meadow, wood, river bank) or anyplace the soil has a different consistency or texture (i.e: muddy, sandy). Describe the composition of each soil and try to explain the differences. You can also apply this technique to evaluate the composition of the soil for a potted plant, and correct it. Example: if water doesn't drain well, would more sand help? If it needs to hold water longer would clay or organic matter be helpful?
4 - With a microscope, measure the size of the particles. With a clock, measure the time to drop to the bottom of a jar of water. time of the particles in water as a verses their size. Then graph with the Y-axis for the size of the particle and X-axis the time to fall.
Soil and Environment Activities
Soil description and classification
Internet keywords: soil sedimentation test.

Role of Water in Photosynthesis.

Besides the individual rates that different species have, rates of transpiration will vary depending on a number of factors. These include temperature (warmer temperatures causes more transpiration), light (plants transpire less in the dark) and humidity (it is easier for a plant to release moisture into drier rather than saturated air. Wind will also cause more transpiration to occur, partly as still air tends to become more humid, and the wind moves this air away from the leaves. And transpiration, like photosynthesis and translocation, is affected by the amount of moisture in the soil that is available for uptake by the plant. If there is insufficient water in the soil, transpiration slows, as do the other process, and the plant will begin to exhibit signs of distress, such as curling and browning of leaves.

Translocation
The movement of water through the parts of a plant is called translocation. It is via translocation that nutrients are moved around the plants to where they are needed. A plant absorbs nutrients in solution; so having sufficient water in the soil is essential for good plant growth (which is why a lot of permaculture practices emphasize the preservation of water in the ground, via mulching, ground cover, and other methods). Soil nutrients are taken up by the roots in a water solution and moved via a process called capillary action that uses the tension of the water itself to maneuver it around. This allows the plant to get nutrients to the leaves where it is required for photosynthesis.

The water‐conducting function of ..

Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants produce the energy they need to survive and grow. And water is central to the process. Photosynthesis uses the energy from the sun to create energy in the form of sugars. For the molecules of sugar to form they need carbon dioxide (which they absorb from the air) and hydrogen, which is sourced from the water in the plant, which comes up through the plant from the roots to the leaves. While plants release oxygen as a by-product of the photosynthesis process, they also need a small amount of it in solution to help facilitate the function; water provides this as well.

Within each cell are a number of elements, such as mitochondria that converts sugars into energy the plant can use, and chloroplasts that contain the chlorophyll the plant uses in photosynthesis. But by far the largest portion of each cell is the vacuole, a space filled with water that ensures the cell maintains its shape. If the plant receives enough water, each vacuole in each cell keeps the cell walls at the right tension, and in combination all the cells give the plant its strength. This water pressure within the cells is called ‘turgor’ and because the strength is derived from a liquid source, the strength retains a flexibility that animal skeletons lack. This allows the plants to adapt to surroundings, bend in the wind and move towards the sun as it traverses the sky during the day to get the most energy for photosynthesis.

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The Discovery of Photosynthesis

Leaves contain water which is necessary to convert light energy into glucose through photosynthesis. Leaves have two structures that minimize water loss, the cuticle and stomata. The cuticle is a waxy coating on the top and bottom of leaves which prevents water from evaporating into the atmosphere (Figure 3a).

Ecosystem Services - Water Purification - Science NetLinks

All organisms, animals and plants, must obtain energy to maintain basic biological functions for survival and reproduction. Plants convert energy from sunlight into sugar in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy from light to convert water and carbon dioxide molecules into glucose (sugar molecule) and oxygen (Figure 2). The oxygen is released, or “exhaled”, from leaves while the energy contained within glucose molecules is used throughout the plant for growth, flower formation, and fruit development.

A Science Odyssey: You Try It: DNA Workshop - PBS

Although the cuticle provides important protection from excessive water loss, leaves cannot be impervious because they must also allow carbon dioxide in (to be used in photosynthesis), and oxygen out. These gases move into and out of the leaf through openings on the underside called stomata (Figure 3b). After carbon dioxide enters the leaf through stomata it moves into the mesophyll cells where photosynthesis occurs and glucose is constructed.

An embryonic cell divides again and again

Flow of water, nutrients and storage materials through the vascular system. Phloem transports products of photosynthesis, primarily sucrose, from the leaves to the stem tissues and the roots. Xylem transport through sapwood moves water and nutrients from the roots to stems and leaves. Heartwood represents xylem that is no longer involved in transport. Rays represent a horizontal transport system that carries nutrients, storage materials, and extractives radially.

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