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DEMOGRAPHIC PRESSURE HYPOTHESIS

The key point I want to make is that Cohen seems to define populationpressure differently than you.

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Learning-by-doing, population pressure, and the theory …

Whatever one's view of this debate, it is striking that virtually allof the central concepts of population genetics were devised in thepre-molecular era, when so little was known about what genes were; thebasic structure of population-genetic theory has changed little sincethe days of Fisher, Haldane and Wright. This reflects the fact thatthe empirical presuppositions of population-genetic models are reallyquite slim; the basic presupposition is simply the existence ofhereditary particles which obey the Mendelian rules of transmission,and which somehow affect the phenotype. Therefore, even withoutknowing what these hereditary particles are made of, or how they exerttheir phenotypic effects, the early population geneticists were ableto devise an impressive body of theory. That the theory continues tobe useful today illustrates the power of abstract models inscience.

Population pressure theories can just as wellbe conflict theories, as indeed Carneiro's is.

The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.

Background information on high blood pressure (hypertension) ..

For example, daily pollen counts may influence the risk of asthma attacks; high blood pressure may proceed a myocardial infarction.

What about inbreeding? In general, inbreeding will tend to increasethe homozygosity of a population, like positive assortment. The reasonfor this is obvious—relatives tend to be more genotypicallysimilar than randomly chosen members of the population. In themajority of species, including the human species, inbreeding hasnegative effects on organismic fitness—a phenomenon known as‘inbreeding depression’. The explanation for this is thatdeleterious alleles often tend to be recessive, so have no phenotypiceffect when found in heterozygotes. Inbreeding reduces the proportionof heterozygotes, making recessive alleles more likely to be found inhomozygotes where their negative phenotypic effects becomeapparent. The converse phenomenon—‘hybrid vigour’resulting from outbreeding—is widely utilised by animal andplant breeders.

where p0 is the initial frequency of theA1 allele in the population, i.e. before anymigration has taken place. Since the expression (1 −m)t tends towards zero as tgrows large, it is easy to see that equilibrium is reached whenpt = pm,i.e. when the gene frequency of the migrants equals the gene frequencyof the resident population.

population pressure, agriculture & the state

24/10/1996 · Learning-by-doing, population pressure, ..

Sanderson focuses on Mark Cohen's theory of population pressure ("TheFood Crisis in Prehistory"/1977) as responsible for the NeolithicRevolution, a theory based on Boserup ("The Conditions of AgriculturalGrowth"/65).

I'm not saying which definition iscorrect, but rather that perhaps what you mean by population pressureis different, and thus may not be contradicting these other theories.

High blood pressure (hypertension) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
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    population pressure, agriculture & the state by Richard N Hutchinson 03 June 2000 01:53 UTC

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Lesson 12: Hypothesis Testing for a Population Mean

86):"...while population pressure theories of state formation often have astrong functionalist cast, and while I favor population pressure as amajor cause of the emergence of the state, this does not lead to anytheoretical contradiction.

blood pressure, pulse rate, and so on.

50):Population pressure is "...nothing more than an imbalance between apopulation, its choice of foods, and its work standards, which forces thepopulation either to change its eating habits or to work harder (or which,if no adjustment is made, can lead to the exhaustion of certainresources)"Also crucial to the argument of the population pressure theorists(following Boserup) is the assumption, based on evidence I am not familiarwith, that there was a very small, gradual, nearly imperceptible increasein the population of the world's gathering & hunting populationsthroughout the Upper Paleolithic, and that this eventually resulted in thenearly simultaneous adoption of agriculture in several overpopulatedareas, which became the first "civilizations."2)crystalline purity of theory, or a less parsimonious compoundIn his chapter 3, Sanderson summarizes and analyzes Carneiro as well asthe authors you mentioned, Haas and Johnson & Earle (whose 1987 book "TheEvolution of Human Societies"/Stanford) I am familiar with.

Broad spectrum revolution - Wikipedia

HEREIT IS...] In conflict versions of population pressure theories, elitesand the state arise through a struggle over scarce resources in which theparticipant groups are actively pursuing their own interests, not becauseof a higher-level form of management of the affairs of society as awhole."Sanderson also supports a proposed combination of Carneiro and Marx(someone's version of Marx, of course) that places greater emphasis on theeconomic benefits gained by the elites than does Carneiro, whose moreWeberian theory emphasizes the coercion of the state, and its developmentthrough war.

The broad spectrum revolution (BSR) hypothesis, ..

The human evolutionary line’s brain . About two million years later, the human line evolved to the point where behaviorally modern humans appeared, , and conquered all inhabitable continents. Their expansion was fueled by . That was also the beginning of the . After all the easy meat was extinct and the brief Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, population pressures led to the : domesticating plants and animals. That event led to civilization, and many features of the human journey often argued to be human nature, such as and the , were merely artifacts of the energy regime and societal structure of agrarian civilizations. Early civilizations were never stable; their energy practices were largely based on and , and such due to their unsustainable energy production methods.

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