Tangled bank hypothesis of advantage of sexuality | …
(2009) "The Tangled Bank: An Introduction to Evolution", Roberts and Company Publishers, Hardcover 385 pages.
The Tangled Bank Hypothesis predicts what
Evolutionary Puzzles of Human Nature"
(1994,1995) "The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life ()
(2004) "How The Mind Works and "The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature"
(1995) "The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, and (2001) "The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy is as necessary as Love and Sex.
There are many introductions into evolutionary psychology.
It requires no substantial prior knowledge of Earth science" (, 21 Feb 14)
(2013) "The Tangled Bank: An Introduction to Evolution, Second Edition", Roberts & Company.
The tangled bank of amino acids
There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone circling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."Interestingly, this same concluding " tangled bank " paragraph did not include the phrase "by the Creator" in the first edition of November, 1859.
The word "" means "four feet" and includes all species alive today that have four feet but this group also includes many animals that don't have four feet. That's because the group includes all the (living and ) that descended from the last common ancestor of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. So, for example, the ichthyosaur, an extinct swimming reptile, is a tetrapod even though it did not use its limbs to walk on land. So is the snake, even though it has no limbs. And birds and humans are tetrapods even though they only walk on two legs. All these animals are tetrapods because they descend from the tetrapod ancestor described above, even if they have secondarily lost their "four feet."
The tangled bank hypothesis; ..
To associate mutations in the metagenome with both clones and ecotypes, single colonies were obtained by growing population samples from 525 and 1,050 generations in the selective environment by plating as described. Ten clones of the three morphotypes at each time point were chosen randomly and frozen for reference. DNA from each clone was isolated, and the loci containing each of the putative mutations were amplified by PCR and sequenced using standard methods ().
The estimated frequencies of mutations identified in sequenced clones, in metagenomes, and by manual screening of variant loci from many clones were integrated to produce a phylogeny of how population B1 evolved and diversified. For instance, mutations detected in the metagenome were not yet associated with a clone or ecotype but enabled estimates of their changing frequencies over time, which allowed us to determine their likely order of occurrence. Sequencing multiple isolates at several loci confirmed this order and also allowed us to assemble haplotypes and to associate mutations with ecotypes, i.e., the mutations associated with the colony morphotypes at each stage. This approach also captured multiple putatively adaptive alleles that were undetected in the metagenome. Further details are given in .
The Tangled Biology of Tau - [PDF Document]
Introduction to the Evolution literature - Gert Korthof
But, I had a nagging feeling that the standard way evolution was being taught, lacked something important.
Introduction to the Evolution literature by Gert Korthof
Professor Lindenmayer taught several courses in theoretical biology at the Utrecht University, which I attended.
Carl Zimmer (2013) "The Tangled Bank: ..
Graham Williams describes the "Tangled Bank" hypothesis: in a saturated economy, it pays to diversify
Plants and their interactions - The Tangled Bank
The mistakes in the Times review, then, are tangled up in debates that go beyond simple error. To what extent should college sexual assault be regarded as a distinct phenomenon? Does that phenomenon have a social importance that goes beyond its relative frequency? Can administrative structures protect students against a phenomenon that the social dynamics of college itself facilitate?
A definition of the term "tangled bank" is presented
As they have struggled to explain the existence of sexual reproduction in nature, evolutionists have suggested four different (and sometimes contradictory) theories, known in the literature as: (1) the Lottery Principle; (2) the Tangled Bank Hypothesis; (3) the Red Queen Hypothesis; and (4) the DNA Repair Hypothesis. We would like to discuss each briefly.
at the gateway of a tangled bank
These reasons include fighting the accumulationof deleterious mutations, increasing rate of adaptation to changing environments [ 10 ](see the red queen hypothesis), dealing with competition (see the tangled bank hypothesis) or as an adaptation for repairing DNA damage.
Evolution of sexual reproduction - Wikipedia
The Tangled Bank Hypothesis suggests that sex evolved in order to prepare offspring for the complicated world around them. The “tangled bank” phraseology comes from the last paragraph of Darwin’s in which he referred to a wide assortment of creatures all competing for light and food on a “tangled bank.” According to this concept, in any environment where there exists intense competition for space, food, and other resources, a premium is placed on diversification. As Zimmer described it:
Red Queen hypothesis - Wikipedia
Six B. cenocepacia populations underwent ~1,050 generations of biofilm selection, all of which diversified into similar sets of three distinct, heritable colony morphotypes from a single ancestral clone () (). At least one of these morphotypes—a small, highly rugose “wrinkly” type ()—is commonly isolated from chronic lung infections of both Burkholderia spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has been associated with high patient mortality (, ). Each morphotype associates with a distinct ecological niche and thus can be considered an ecotype; collectively, ecotypes segregate nutrients and biofilm space in ways that enhance community productivity () (). The persistence of these ecotypes for the duration of the experiment raised several questions about their evolutionary dynamics and mutational causes. Did each type evolve once and persist, or did multiple mutations produce the same ecotypes? In addition, did these types generate further diversity and coevolve, much as Darwin envisioned for the evolution of his famous “tangled bank” () of myriad, interdependent plants and animals?
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