De novo synthesis of minus strand RNA by the rotavirus …
JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
De novo synthesis of VP16 coordinates the exit from …
T1 - Transcriptional activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat by hepatitis B virus X-protein requires de novo protein synthesis
Australian scientist Howard Florey and his team at Oxford University demonstrate the antibacterial action of penicillin, then go on to successfully treat infected mice.
Microbiology Society Journals | De Novo Synthesis of …
1. Anew; often applied to particular biochemical pathways in which metabolites are newly biosynthesized (de novo purine biosynthesis).
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) X-gene, previously shown to be capable of trans-activating heterologous regulatory elements of the human β-interferon gene, the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR), the simian virus 40 (SV40), and HBV, has the capacity to code for a 17-kDa polypeptide (designated pX17). We now report that pX17 synthesized in Escherichia coli can activate transcription controlled by the HIV-1 LTR using a protoplast fusion technique. Protoplasts of E. coli-containing presynthesized X-protein were fused with lymphocytic H938 cells harboring an integrated copy of a plasmid with the CAT gene under control of the HIV-1 LTR (HIV-1 LTR CAT) and a marked increase in the steady state expression of the CAT mRNA was observed. When the same fused cells were treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide, the pX17-dependent activation of the HIV-1 LTR was abolished. This result indicates that the X-protein expressed in E. coli is biologically active and suggests that the HBV X-protein-mediated trans-activation of the HIV-1 LTR in this system requires de novo cellular protein synthesis.
Epstein-Barr virus modulates de novo protein synthesis …
As a first step in identifying the functions and intramolecular functional domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) in productive infection and latency, a series of mutant plasmids specifying varying amounts of the ICP0 primary amino acid sequence were constructed. In transient expression assays with mutant and wild-type plasmids, the N-terminal half of the ICP0 molecule was found to be sufficient to transactivate a variety of viral promoters. Although promoters representing the immediate-early, early, and late kinetic classes were transactivated by wild-type ICP0, individual promoters responded to mutant forms of ICP0 in a manner consistent with the possibility that ICP0 transactivates different promoters by different mechanisms. Unlike infection with virus particles, which contain the 65-kilodalton transcriptional transactiovator, the initiation of viral replication after transfection of cells with purified viral DNA requires de novo protein synthesis. In order to assess the role of ICP0 in the de novo synthesis of infectious virus, Vero cells were transfected with purified DNA of wild-type virus or an ICP0 null mutant and the production of infectious virus was monitored. In cells transfected with mutant DNA, virus production was delayed by 2 days and the level of virus was reduced by several orders of magnitude relative to Vero cells transfected with wild-type viral DNA, suggesting an important role for ICP0 in the de novo synthesis of infectious particles. In cotransfection experiments with infectious DNA of the ICP0 null mutant and a plasmid specifying wild-type ICP0 titers of infectious virus were significantly enhanced relative to transfection with mutant DNA alone, confirming the role of ICP0 in de novo synthesis. These findings are consistent with the proposed role of ICP0 in reactivation of herpes simplex virus from latency (D. A. Leib, D. M. Coen, C. L. Bogard, K. A. Hicks, D. R. Yager, D. M. Knipe, K. L. Tyler, and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 63:759-768, 1989), a process also thought to require de novo protein synthesis. The complementing activities of ICP0 mutant plasmids for ICP0 null mutant DNA in cotransfection assays correlated well with their transactivating activities for viral promoters in transient assays, indicating that the transactivating function of ICP0 is a critical factor in the de novo synthesis of infectious particles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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Many famous people have been polio victims; most were able to overcome their disabilities, while others were less fortunate. Itzhak Perlman, one of the world’s finest violinists, was permanently disabled at age four, and still plays sitting down. Other polio victims are actor Donald Sutherland, President Roosevelt, writer Arthur C. Clarke, actress Mia Farrow, singer and musician Neil Young, actor Alan Alda, singer Joni Mitchell, director Francis Ford Coppola and actor Lionel Barrymore.
De novo initiation of RNA synthesis by the RNA …
Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis.
Epstein-Barr virus modulates de novo protein synthesis in human neutrophils
We conclude that de novo synthesis of one or more ..
De novo RNA synthesis and homology modeling of the classical swine fever virus RNA polymerase
de novo synthesis and degradation of fatty acids ..
Factors affecting de novo RNA synthesis and back-priming by the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase
08/08/2000 · Novo-Trimel D.S
In 1921 at the University of Toronto, Dr Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best made a crucial breakthrough in the fight against diabetes. They inject insulin extracted from a canine pancreas into another dog whose pancreas has been removed, dramatically reducing its diabetic symptoms. The following year, a 14 year-old boy with diabetes is injected with the world’s first medicinal dose of insulin.
side effects, interactions and indications.
In 1928, Dr Alexander Fleming observed the antibiotic properties of a mould growing in his laboratory. He had in fact discovered penicillin, the wonder drug of the 20th century. But the potential of this breakthrough was not realised until 10 years later, when Australian scientist Howard Florey and his team at Oxford University began the process of developing penicillin for human use. Their efforts in creating a medicine that could effectively kill harmful bacteria led to millions and millions of lives being saved.
DNA Virus Replication - Microbiology Book
While there were many attempts to develop an effective vaccine against polio, it was Dr Jonas Salk from the University of Pittsburgh who eventually made the breakthrough in 1955. Production of the vaccine used in pivotal clinical trials was led by CSL’s Dr Val Bazeley who had earlier travelled to the US to learn from Salk’s work.
Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
In 1923, CSL gains international acclaim by becoming one of only four organisations around the world to be granted a licence to produce insulin by the University of Toronto. Full scale production commences by the end of that year and continues uninterrupted for a further seven decades.
100 years and just getting started
As a result, the whole operation is prevented from being transcribed into mRNA, and the expression of all enzymes necessary for the synthesis of the end product enzyme is abolished.Eudismic ratio is the of the relative to that of the .The Eutomer is the enantiomer of a chiral compound that is the more potent for a particular action (See also ).A genome is the complete set of chromosomal and extrachromosomal genes of an organism, a cell, an organelle or a virus; the complete DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) component of an organism.Hansch analysis is the investigation of the quantitative relationship between the biological activity of a series of compounds and their physicochemical substituent or global parameters representing hydrophobic, electronic, steric and other effects using multiple regression correlation methodology.A hapten is a low molecular weight molecule that contains an antigenic determinant but which is not itself antigenic unless combined with an antigenic carrier.A hard drug is a nonmetabolizable compound, characterized either by high lipid solubility and accumulation in adipose tissues and organelles, or by high water solubility.In the lay press the term "Hard Drug" refers to a powerful of abuse such as cocaine or heroin.A heteroreceptor is a regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand (See also ).The term homologue is used to describe a compound belonging to a series of compounds differing from each other by a repeating unit, such as a methylene group, a peptide residue, etc.A hormone is a substance produced by endocrine glands, released in very low concentration into the bloodstream, and which exerts regulatory effects on specific organs or tissues distant from the site of secretion.Hydrophilicity is the tendency of a molecule to be solvated by water.Hydrophobicity is the association of non-polar groups or molecules in an aqueous environment which arises from the tendency of water to exclude non polar molecules.
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