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The coral probiotic hypothesis.

An important outcome of the Probiotic Hypothesis would be development of resistance of the coral holobiont to diseases.

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The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis - ResearchGate

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The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis, Environmental …

Borneman (2001, 2002d) discusses potential effects of various allelopathic metabolic products from hard and soft corals that leach into the water, and provides a list of supporting reference material from the scientific literature. This concept has been visited before (see for example, Wilkens, 1990; Delbeek and Sprung, 1994). While it is true that abundance of soft corals in an aquarium can limit the vigor of stony corals and vice versa, the problem is explaining how this effect can become chronically worse as an aquarium ages. We think of it as an issue of the composition of corals in the aquarium, and we know this presents an interesting challenge when planning this composition. However, if it were just a matter of keeping the mass ratios of certain creatures within certain limits, we could define this more precisely. It is certainly possible that as the mass of the soft or stony corals increases with time, it can have a progressively stronger allelopathic effect on other stony or soft corals simply because as the mass increases it is releasing a greater quantity of compounds. Borneman (2001, 2002d) hypothesizes that the effects of this chemical warfare may be the cause of periodic unexplained losses of corals. Since there is so little known about the fate of these compounds in closed system aquariums, it is hard to verify or dispute such a claim. It is likely that allelopathic compounds causing all kinds of problems could be an unpredictable artifact of the closed system environment, but don’t let that scare you! The long-term success of reef aquariums of all sizes is evidence that this kind of problem is not the rule.

Coral Probiotic Hypothesis definitions - Defined Term

The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis may help explain the evolutionary success of corals and moderate the predictions of their demise.

What is biological filtration? Traditionally it is thought of as the management of nitrogenous waste. However, the bacteria in a biological filter bed also digest many sorts of organic compounds, and their function helps to maintain a "healthy environment" in ways that have little to do with the nitrogen cycle. This concept is hardly ever discussed in contemporary biological filtration articles and lectures, but it is well known in the field of "biospherics." In the early 1990’s I was hired to consult for the Biosphere 2 project, which, if you recall, was a fantastic project wherein a large sealed greenhouse was constructed that contained several of the earth’s major ecosystems, including a rainforest, ocean, coral reef, and savannah. A group of scientists also were contained in this closed system for a couple of years, studying the changes that occurred, in their environment. The maintenance of the air in such closed systems parallels the maintenance of water in our closed system aquariums. Maintenance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels is probably the first thing you think about, and you would probably imagine that the use of plants in sufficient quantity can achieve a balance. In fact it is not so simple to achieve a balance, but the idea is in that direction. An important air quality parameter that the engineers of this project had to consider was the release of volatile substances into the air by the plastics and other technical components of the structure. This effect is a slight concern for all of us in our homes and offices, but it is not a big concern for us since our buildings are not sealed shut, but breathe and exchange air with the outside. In a closed system the accumulation of these substances in the air can cause serious health effects. The solution to the problem was to pass the air through soil bed reactors. Soil bed reactors are basically damp soil beds through which air is drawn by displacement caused by fans pumping the air out of the space below the soil bed. Plants are grown in the soil, and various types of bacteria and other life colonize the soil. Sounds a bit like a sandbed in an aquarium, no?

Because so many aquarists have experienced it, old tank syndrome must exist. However, as with other syndromes, the causes are many, so it is not a simple matter to say that this is just since it isn’t. This article will examine the factors that I believe to be involved, and discuss their relevance to what actually happens in reef aquariums. This article does not represent the results of experimental analysis. It is instead a summary of some ideas that have been presented in the aquarium and scientific literature, a discussion of their relevance, and a discussion of some observations and proposals of my own regarding old tank phenomena.

CiteSeerX — The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis

The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis may help explain the evolutionary success of corals and moderate the predictions of their demise.

Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.

Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.

An important outcome of the Probiotic Hypothesis would be development of resistance of the coral holobiont to diseases' (Reshef et al, 2006.
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  • Coral Bleaching: Probiotic Hypothesis to the Rescue

    The coral probiotic hypothesis

  • 2006 The coral probiotic hypothesis

    Another example is summed up in the coral probiotic hypothesis proposed by Reshef et al

  • The coral probiotic hypothesis.

    02/01/2018 · This has been conceptualized in the coral probiotic hypothesis [16,17]

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The “Coral Probiotic Hypothesis ..

Emerging diseases have been responsible for the death of about 30 % of corals worldwide during the last 30 years. Coral biologists have predicted that by 2050 most of the world’s coral reefs will be destroyed. This prediction is based on the assumption that corals can not adapt rapidly enough to environmental stress-related conditions and emerging diseases. Our recent studies of the Vibrio shiloi/Oculina patagonica model system of the coral bleaching disease indicate that corals can indeed adapt rapidly to changing envi-ronmental conditions by altering their population of symbiotic bacteria. These studies have led us to propose the Coral Probiotic Hypothesis. This hypoth-esis posits that a dynamic relationship exists between symbiotic microorganisms and environmen-tal conditions which brings about the selection of the most advantageous coral holobiont. Changing their microbial partners would allow the corals to adapt to changing environmental conditions more rapidly (days to weeks) than via mutation and selection (many years). An important outcome of the Probiotic Hypothesis would be development of resistance of the coral holobiont to diseases. The following evi-dence supports this hypothesis: (i) Corals contain a large and diverse bacterial population associated with their mucus and tissues; (ii) the coral-associated bacterial population undergoes a rapid change when environmental conditions are altered; and (iii) although lacking an adaptive immune system (no antibodies), corals can develop resistance to pathogens. The Coral Probiotic Hypothesis may help explain the evolutionary success of corals and mod-erate the predictions of their demise.

one of the facets of the coral probiotic hypothesis.

A hypothesis becomes a scientific theory when repeated testing and the great body of evidence suggests that the hypothesis has a stong probability of being correct

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