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A comparison between Photosynthesis and Respiration:

Be able to write the overall equation forCellular respiration.

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Chemical equation of cellular respirationHow are they interconnected?

Only plants can photosynthesize, but both plants and animals depend on respiration to release the chemical potential energy originally captured through photosynthesis.

Alcoholic fermentation - Occurs in some plants and unicellular organisms.

Fish and other aquatic life forms such as shrimp require a subtle and complex electrolyte balance between the intracellular (inside the cell) and extra cellular (outside the cell such as plasma membranes) environment. In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important.
These gradients affect and regulate the hydration of the fish, blood pH, and disease resistance and are important for proper nerve and muscle function.

Sudden changes in these electrolytes (as with pH) can be stressful/detrimental as well, this includes rapid positive changes.
For this reason any aquarium that is depleted of positive mineral ions in particular, should have these introduced .
This is especially the case with many Labyrinth fish (such as Bettas), and Crystal Red Shrimp even though both benefit greatly from these mineral cations.

A fish or invertebrate stressed by the introduction of positive ions is evidence that these cations should avoided, rather proof of an unhealthy mineral cation depleted environment (as per good scientific reasoning).

Salt is another type of electrolyte commonly used in a dose of one tablespoon per 5 gallons (20 liters) in freshwater aquariums.
This is one way to add some sodium electrolytes to a freshwater aquarium, but not the only.
Please Read this article prior to using salt in a freshwater aquarium:

17. Write a summary of cellular respiration. In your response:

In your words discuss why cellular respiration is so important to living organisms.

People are usually surprised to hear that grass is a relatively recent plant innovation. and only became common in the late Cretaceous, along with flowering plants. With grass, some , and grazers have been plentiful Cenozoic herbivores. According to , carbon dioxide levels have been falling nearly continuously for the past 150-100 million years. Not only has that decline progressively cooled Earth to the point where we live in an ice age today, but is currently considered the key reason why complex life may become extinct on Earth in several hundred million years. In the Oligocene, between 32 mya and 25 mya some plants developed a during photosynthesis known as . It allowed plants to adapt to reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. C4 plants became in the Miocene, and grasses are today’s most common C4 plants and . The rest of Earth’s photosynthesizers use or , which is a water-conserving process used in arid biomes.

So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.

Compare Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

The outputs of respiration (energy, carbon dioxide, and water) are the inputs of photosynthesis.

When I arrived at my office, I turned on my lights and computer. When I was eating, I put the food that I brought to work in a refrigerator under my desk. During my work day, I interacted with many people in my air-conditioned, high-technology office environment. My cellular telephone was never far away. The view from my office window of the was pleasant. My computer interfaced with our distant data centers and the world at large via the Internet. When my workday was finished, I rode the bus home. In the winter, the furnace is programmed to stop functioning when my wife and I leave for work, and comes on soon before we arrive home, so we never experienced a cold house. In the evening, we might watch a movie on a DVD on our wide-screen plasma TV. When I am not fasting, I usually eat dinner, with the food in my refrigerator usually purchased at a that has an enormous produce section, with food grown locally and imported from as far away as New Zealand, China, and Israel. We have a high-tech kitchen, with a “smart” stove, refrigerator, and other appliances.

Above all else, life is an energy acquisition process. All life exploits the potential energy in various atomic and molecular arrangements, or captures energy directly, as in photosynthesis. Early life exploited the . The chemosynthetic ideal is capturing chemicals fresh to new environments that have yet to react with other chemicals. The currently most-accepted hypothesis has life first appearing on Earth about 3.5-3.8 bya, probably in volcanic vents on the ocean floor. The earliest life forms took advantage of fresh chemicals introduced to the oceans. Life had to be opportunistic and quick in order to capture that energy before other molecules did.

4. How does the equation for cellular respiration compare with the equation for photosynthesis?
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  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flashcards | …

    Draw a diagram showing the process of cellular respiration in a cell (identify locations & label all parts).

  • Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration by …

    11. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration?

  • The overall equation for cellular respiration looks like this: ..

    Be able to explain how electron microscopy has increased understanding of subcellular structures.

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Comparing & Contrasting Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

An important evolutionary principle is organisms' developing a new feature for one purpose and then using that feature for other purposes as the opportunity arose. As complex life evolved in the newly oxygenated seafloors, several immediate survival needs had to be addressed. To revisit the , if an oxygen-dependent animal did not have access to oxygen, it meant immediate death. Obtaining oxygen would have been the salient requirement for early complex life that adopted aerobic respiration , which is how nearly all animals today respire. While animals in low-oxygen environments have adapted to other ways of respiring (or perhaps in the first place), they are all sluggish creatures and would have quickly lost in the coming arms race. , which is a critical connective tissue in animals, requires oxygen for its synthesis, and was one of numerous oxygen-dependencies that animals quickly adopted during the Cambrian Explosion.

Compare The Equations For Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis

consist of body plans, which scientists have used to classify all life forms, and all significant animal phyla had appeared by the Cambrian Period’s end. The Cambrian Explosion has been difficult to explain and there is still great controversy and many unanswered questions, and it has also been difficult to explain why significant change stopped the explosion. Once the basic body plans appeared and biomes were filled, new plans never appeared again. Why did all fundamental change stop? The emerging view is the same for why complex life with and never changed since then. Not only could innovation confer great benefits, but , further travel along the developmental path made it continually less feasible to backtrack, start over, and take another path, or choose a fundamentally different path. The history of life’s choices was reflected in organisms in several ways, and the source of that inertia began to be understood when biology and chemistry at the cellular and subcellular levels were investigated, particularly after DNA was sequenced and studied. The fact that have not significantly changed in several hundred million years points to the issue. Hox genes have not changed because they control key developmental steps in embryonic development. Not only do Hox genes work, there are no practical ways to significantly change them, as they lay the animal’s structural foundation. Hox genes are called regulatory genes, and the nature of seems to be why animals have not fundamentally changed since the Cambrian Explosion.

"The Differences Between Photosynthesis & Respiration."

Just as the aftermath of the appearance of complex life was uninteresting from a , as the amazingly diverse energy-generation strategies of archaea and bacteria were almost totally abandoned in favor of aerobic respiration, biological solutions to the problems that complex life presented were greatest during the Cambrian Explosion, and everything transpiring since then has been relatively insignificant. Animals would never see that level of innovation again. While investigating those eonic changes, many scientists have realized that the dynamics of those times might have been quite different from today’s, as once again may be of limited use for explaining what happened. Also, scientists generally use a rule-of-thumb called , or parsimony, which states that with all else being equal, simpler theories are preferred. , a seminal theorist regarding the scientific method, as they were easier to falsify. However, this issue presents many problems, and in recent times, theories of or speciation have invoked numerous interacting dynamics. Einstein noted that the more elegant and impressive the math used to support a theory, the less likely the theory depicted reality. Occam’s Razor has also become an unfortunate dogma in various circles, particularly , in which the of materialism and establishment science are defended, and often quite irrationally. Simplicity and complexity have been seesawing over the course of scientific history as fundamental principles. The recent trend toward multidisciplinary syntheses has been generally making hypotheses more complex and difficult to test, although and ever-increasing and more precise data makes the task more feasible than ever, at least situations in which are not interfering.

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