Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
Photosynthesis is the process by ..
Plants and other producers utilize the sun's energy to build complex organic compounds that serve as a source of energy for the organism. Chloroplasts are the site of this energy capture and biosynthesis. Chlorophyll and other pigment molecules play a vital role in the light reactions of photosynthesis, capturing energy that drives an electron transport chain and ATP synthesis. Ultimately, through light-independent reactions, the chemical energy is transferred and stored within molecules such as glucose. This entire process is summarized by the chemical equation:
Chloroplasts:The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants
All green parts of plants contain chloroplast (stem, unripened fruit)
Half a million chloroplast per square millimeter of leaf surface.
Chlorophyll is the green pigment located within chloraplast which causes the color of the leaf
The light energy absorbed by chlorophyll drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast
Chloroplast are found mainly in mesophyll cells, the interior of the leaf
Stomata are pores which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exists through the leaves
Water absorbed through roots are delivered to the veins which are also used to export sugar to the roots
Average mesophyll cells has 30 to 40 chloroplast
Stroma is the dense fluid within the chloroplast
Thylakoids are interconnected membranous sacs that segregate the stroma from another compartment
Chlorophyll resides in the thylakoid membranes
The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview
Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle are the two stages of photosynthesis
The light reactions are the steps that convert solar energy to chemical energy
The hydrogen ions and electrons are accepted by NADP+ where they are temporarily stored.
Photosynthesis is the physico-chemical process by which plants, ..
Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.
In a broad chemical sense, the opposite of photosynthesis isrespiration. Most of life on this planet (all except in the deepsea vents) depends on the reciprocal photosynthesis-drivenproduction of carbon containing compounds by a series of reducing(adding electrons) chemical reactions carried out by plants andthen the opposite process of oxidative (removing electrons)chemical reactions by animals (and plants, which are capable ofboth photosynthesis and respiration) in which these carboncompounds are broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
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Photoaututrophs utilize sunlight for energy and CO2 for theircarbon source by this process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS whereby sunlightis absorbed by a complex compound known as chlorophyll andconverted to energy which drives a series of chemical reactionsthat ultimately removes hydrogen from water or other compoundsand then combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide in a way thatproduces sugars.
Electrochemical gradient - Wikipedia
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient ..
Overview of Photosynthesis | Biology I
11/07/2017 · New research uncovers the secrets of photosynthesis that could help develop ..
light energy into chemical energy
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