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Central Dogma and Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis and Central Dogma of Biology by Roy …

It contains specific sequences of nucleotides that construct RNA, which codes for proteins.
DNA
RNA
Comparisons of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis
DNA Experiments
Translation
Differences
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Have 3 RNA polymerase
Have 1 RNA polymerase
Initiation more complex
Occurs in the cytoplasm
Occurs in the nucleus and moves to cytoplasm
Splicing of mRNA transcript does not occur
Splicing of mRNA transcript occurs
They are named RNA polymerase I, II, and III.
Hershey-Chase
experiment
Watson & Grick
experiment
Meselson-Stahl
experiment
Bacterial viruses, called phage, were used to confirm that DNA was the genetic material, and not protein.
DNA
RNA
PROTEIN
Transcription =
mRNA

Protein

DNA

mRNA
Translation =
The central dogma explains that DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins.

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RNA polymerase attaches complimentary bases to form an RNA strand.
Purpose
Structure
DNA is
double stranded.
Central Dogma
Transcription
Comparison of DNA and RNA
Protein Synthesis for Dummies
RNA is
single stranded.
DNA and RNA are made up of a phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous bases.
DNA's 5 carbon sugar is
deoxyribose.
RNA's 5 carbon sugar is
ribose.
DNA nitrogenous bases are adenine,
thymine
, guanine, and cytosine.
RNA nitrogenous bases are adenine,
uracil
, guanine, and cytosine.
RNA transfers genetic code needed for the creation of proteins from the nucleus to the ribosome.
Just like a builder uses a blueprint to build a house, DNA is used as the blueprint for the organism.

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