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Conclusions: Our present work has potential to enable the development of an economic and efficient cold-adapted cellulase system for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels in future.

Pauly M, Gille S, Liu LF, et al. (2013) Hemicellulose biosynthesis. Planta 238: 627–642.

Dhugga KS, Barreiro R, Whitten B, et al. (2004) Guar seed beta‐mannan synthase is a member of the cellulose synthase super gene family. Science 303: 363–366.

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Scheller HV and Ulvskov P (2010) Hemicelluloses. Annual Review of Plant Biology 61: 263–289.

We have sequenced the celABC genes from R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii ANU843 (GeneBank accession no. JN180924, celA; JN180925, celB; AJ561043, celC). Their nucleotide sequence and organization are similar and highly conserved among various Rhizobiaceae members. Orthologs of this operon are also found in other legume-nodulating bacteria (Additional file ).

A database search revealed that all the currently defined Rhizobiaceae genomes possess genes coding for cellulose synthase belonging to the Glycosyl Transferase family 2 (GT2). Interestingly, these GT2 coding genes are located near endoglucanase celC homologs (belonging to Glycosyl Hydrolase family 8) forming the celABC operon or near cellulase genes from Glycosyl Hydrolase family 26, forming a potential operon that contains a cellulose synthase associated with a cellulase and another hypothetical protein of unknown function, that we have named celIJK. This putative operon has homologs in all currently available genomic sequences of Rhizobiaceae representatives (Additional file ). There are several organisms that share both cellulose production operons, and in Agrobacterium tumefaciens wild-type strain C58, celABC and celIJK are closely located in the genome.

Reesei QM 9414 in the presence of sophorose

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GFP-tagged rhizobia growing on sand particles or plastic tabs were aseptically removed from the wells, and placed into the wells of depression slides, topped with a covers lip, and examined by confocal microscopy.

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Mohnen D (2008) Pectin structure and biosynthesis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11: 266–277.
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    29/01/2010 · Brazilian Journal of Microbiology ..

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    Boerjan W, Ralph J and Baucher M (2003a) Lignin biosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology 54: 519–546.

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Brown DM, Goubet F, Vicky WWA, et al. (2007) Comparison of five xylan synthesis mutants reveals new insight into the mechanisms of xylan synthesis. Plant Journal 52: 1154–1168.

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Brown DM, Zhang ZN, Stephens E, Dupree P and Turner SR (2009) Characterization of IRX10 and IRX10‐like reveals an essential role in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 57: 732–746.

Strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii used in this study.

Chiniquy D, Sharma V, Schultink A, et al. (2012) XAX1 from glycosyltransferase family 61 mediates xylosyltransfer to rice xylan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 17117–17122.


Davin LB, Wang HB, Crowell AL, et al. (1997) Stereoselective bimolecular phenoxy radical coupling by an auxiliary (dirigent) protein without an active center. Science 275: 362–366.

Soil materials for the selection of fungal strains

Egelund J, Petersen BL, Motawia MS, et al. (2006) Arabidopsis thaliana RGXT1 and RGXT2 encode Golgi‐localized (1,3)‐alpha‐D‐xylosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of pectic rhamnogalacturonan‐II. Plant Cell 18: 2593–2607.

Isolation and selection of fugal strains from Antarctic soils

Gille S, De Souza A, Xiong GY, et al. (2011) O‐Acetylation of arabidopsis hemicellulose xyloglucan requires AXY4 or AXY4L, proteins with a TBL and DUF231 domain. Plant Cell 23: 4041–4053.

Morphological and molecular characteristics of selected strain

Harholt J, Jensen JK, Sorensen SO, et al. (2006) ARABINAN DEFICIENT 1 is a putative arabinosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of Pectic Arabinan in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 140: 49–58.

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