Proline Derivatives in Organic Synthesis
Organic Synthesis in Water - Organic Chemistry Portal
25th International Symposium: Synthesis in Organic Chemistry
One of the major goals of catalytic antibodies is to provide tailor-made catalysts for use in practical organic synthesis. Reflecting the increasing demand for enantio- and regioselective catalysts in organic synthesis, the scope of antibody catalysis now encompasses a broad array of synthetically important reactions such as highly enantio- and regioselective C-C bond formations and programmable control of disfavored reaction pathways. The advances in antibody catalysis have now reached the stage where it is actually applied to preparative scale synthesis of optically active compounds. In this review, we focus on how antibody catalysis is designed and adopted to organic synthesis and describe (1) the antibody-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions and aldol condensations as examples of highly enantio- and regioselective C-C bond formations, (2) the control of reaction pathways and selectivities by antibodies, (3) the catalytic antibodies with broad substrate specificity, (4) the applications of antibody catalysis to preparative organic synthesis, and (5) the antibody catalysis in organic solvents and the antibody immobilization.
The Knoevenagel condensation 12 of aldehydes with active methylene compounds is an important method used for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important organic compounds. Deshmukh et al (2012) 13 showed that lemon juice can act as an efficient homogeneous acid catalyst for the knoevenagel condensation reaction under solvent-free environment. Thus, when various aldehydes and malononitrile were mixed with lemon juice followed by stirring of mixture at room temperature for 5-120 min minute lead to formation of condensation product in good yields.
, Proline Derivatives in Organic Synthesis, Org
ABSTRACT: The natural acid like lemon juice provides mild acidic state which used to catalyzed reaction of primary amine and aldehyde in green solvent like ethanol at room temperature reflux for 1.5 hour gives Schiff bases in good yield. Schiff bases have attracted considerable attention of us due to their significant biological activities 1 like anticancer, antitumor, anti inflammatory agents 4, insecticidal, antibacterial 5, antituberculosis, antimicrobial 2-3, antifungal 5, anti-HIV and metal corrosion inhibition activities of Schiff bases, besides wide range of pharmacological activities. Natural acid is non-polluting and does not employ any lethal materials, quantifying if as a green approach for the synthesis of Schiff bases. Schiff bases also have several types of biological actions such as analgesic and antimalerial 6. They are working as Ligands for complexes of metal ions. Organosilicon complexes with Schiff bases are found to be beneficial in various agricultural applications like fungicides, bactericides, herbicides, acaricides and antifeedants 7. The metal complex of Schiff bases are also of principal significance in analytical chemistry and chemotherapy 8.
The lemon juice contain85% moisture, 0.5% Vitamin-C, 5-7% citric acid, 1%protein, 11.2% carbohydrates, 1.6 % fibres, 0.9% fat, 0.3 % minerals and also contain organic acids. As lemon juice provides acidic condition pH 2-3 and percentage of citric acid 5-7% is more, hence it Works as natural acid catalyst for Formation of Schiff’s bases 1, 12. As per the results revealed by enormous experiments, a laboratory test was conducted for synthesizing Schiff bases from various substituted aldehydes and semicarbazone by employing lemon juice as green or eco-friendly catalyst.
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