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2 Carbohydrate Storage and Synthesis in Liver and …

Synthesis, Storage, and Secretion of Adrenal Medullary Hormones: Physiology and Pathophysiology.

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Increasing the carbohydrate storage capacity of plants …

The diversity of insect coloration is in large measure because of an abundance of pigments. Combinations of pigments together with effects of light diffraction, refraction, and interference involving various anatomical structures produce the array of exotic colors familiar to insect observers. Many insects synthesize melanins, ommochromes, porphyrins, pteridines, and/or quinones. Other pigments such as flavonoids and carotenoids, although not synthesized, are often sequestered by insects from plants and contribute to coloration. Two pigment groups are notable. Ommochromes, first reported from the eyes of insects, and papilochromes, a unique group that occur in the bodies and wings of the butterfly family Papilionidae.

FIGURE 1 Structure of the protein-chitin cross-linkage in the pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta (adapted from Schaefer et al., 1987). Protein may be linked through the 1 or 3 nitrogen of the imidizole ring to the 2, 5, or 6 ring carbon of the quinone derivative, and carbon 4, or other carbons of chitin may be linked to phenoxy carbon 3 or 4 of the quinone.
Ommochromes are polymers of heterocyclic phenoxines, distributed among a variety of different insect tissues, producing yellow, red, and brown coloration. They are synthesized from tryptophan in a metabolic pathway involving kyneurenine derivatives. In the compound eye, ommochromes form the principal masking pigments that surround and isolate the individual ommatidia and thus the origin of the name. Several eye-color mutants, described in several insect species, result from the absence of enzymatic function at specific steps in the synthetic pathway. Identification of these steps in Drosophila was one of the early confirmations of A. Garrod’s one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. The ommochrome biosynthetic pathway in the coloration of M. sexta larvae is hormonally regulated.
Papiliochromes are novel white, yellow, and red pigments whose synthesis intersects the well-known metabolic pathways, the melanins and ommochromes. For butterflies of the genus Papilio, the precursors are (3 alanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Papiliochromes accumulate in the wing scales, and their distribution varies with the butterfly species. Recent studies on papiliochrome synthesis demonstrated that, as in the case of sclerotization, quinone methides derived from tyrosine are intermediates. The synthesis involves the non-enzymatic condensation of N-( -alanyldopamine quinone methide with L -kynurenine to produce a mixture of two diastereoisomers of papilochrome II, a white pigment. Papiliochrome II is a peptide in which the two aromatic rings are linked by a bridge between the aromatic amino group of kynurenine and the catecholamine side chain of norepinephrine derived from the quinone. Papiliochrome synthesis is regulated by the activation of ( -alanyldopamine synthase that shifts dopamine derived from tyrosine away from melanin synthesis and into papiliochrome synthesis.

Increasing the carbohydrate storage capacity of plants by ..

Rajender S. Varma was born in India (Ph.D., Delhi University, 1976). After postdoctoral research at Robert Robinson Laboratories, Liverpool, U.K., he was a faculty member of the Baylor College of Medicine and Sam Houston State University prior to joining the Sustainable Technology Division at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. He has over 40 years of research experience in management of multidisciplinary technical programs and is extensively involved in sustainable aspects of chemistry, which include development of environmentally benign synthetic methods using alternate energy input using microwaves, ultrasound, and mechanochemistry, etc., efficient technologies for greener remediation of contaminants, and environmental sciences. Lately, he has been focused on greener approaches to assembly of nanomaterials and sustainable applications of magnetically retrievable nanocatalysts in benign media. He is a member of the editorial advisory board of several international journals and has published over 430 scientific papers and been awarded 14 U.S. patents.

7.1: Carbohydrate Storage and Breakdown - Biology …

7.1: Carbohydrate Storage and Breakdown

Tewodros (Teddy) Asefa is currently a professor in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ. He is also a member of the Rutgers Institute for Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology (IAMDN) and the Rutgers Energy Institute (REI). In December 2009, he helped to put together the Rutgers Catalysis Research Center (RCRC). His group at Rutgers is involved in the development of synthetic methods of a wide array of functional and core/shell nanomaterials and the investigation of their potential applications in catalysis, electrocatalysis, targeted delivery of drugs to specific cells, nanocytotoxicity, solar cells, and environmental remediation. He is a recipient of the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award (2007–2012), the NSF Special Creativity Award in 2011, the Rutgers Board of Governors Research Fellowship in 2012, and multiple federal and local research grants. He was named the National Science Foundation American Competitiveness Fellow (NSF ACIF) in 2010 and also serves as a panelist for several federal and international agencies. He has recently coedited a book on nanocatalysis (Wiley) and has written over 120 peer-reviewed scientific papers and several book chapters over the past decade.

That advice came from people who had the credentials to call themselves experts, also.

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1) What modern research can you point to that says protein needs don't increase with heavy muscle tissue breakdown?

common form of carbohydrate transported from source ..

with carbon and energy for growth and storage product synthesis.

We report the synthesis of novel diphenylalanine/cobalt(II,III) oxide (Co3O4) composite nanowires by peptide self-assembly. Peptide nanowires were prepared by treating amorphous diphenylalanine film with aniline vapor at an elevated temperature. They were hybridized with Co3O4 nanocrystals through the reduction of cobalt ions in an aqueous solution using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) without any complex processes such as heat treatment. The formation of peptide/Co3O4 composite nanowires was characterized using multiple tools, such as electron microscopies and elemental analysis, and their potential application as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries was explored by constructing Swagelok-type cells with hybrid nanowires as a working electrode and examining their charge/discharge behavior. The present study provides a useful approach for the synthesis of functional metal oxide nanomaterials by demonstrating the feasibility of peptide/Co3O4 hybrid nanowires as an energy storage material.



CHEMICAL DIGESTION
Although we have carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in our diets, these do not become the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in our bodies. Our digestive system breaks down polysaccharides to monosaccharides, lipids to glycerol and fatty acids, proteins to amino acids, and nucleic acids to their components. These building blocks enter the blood and can be absorbed by our body's cells (fats reach the blood after passing through the lymphatic vessels first). Our body cells may perform catabolic reactions to obtain energy from these molecules or anabolic reactions in which the body makes large human molecules from these building blocks. Not only does the digestive system depend on the circulatory and lymphatic systems for transport, it requires the respiratory system as well. Oxygen is required for the reactions which produce energy from the metabolism of food. During this process, carbon dioxide is produced as a waste.

Muscle glycogen is the athlete’s storage form of carbohydrate and the ..
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  • and is a primary carbohydrate storage form in ..

    Storage is achieved through the synthesis of a large, highly branched complex carbohydrate molecule named glycogen.

  • Carbohydrate feeding and glycogen synthesis during exercise in ..

    Much of intermediary metabolism, including synthesis and storage of carbohydrate and fat, takes place in the fat body.

  • glycogen the principal carbohydrate storage molecule of animals, ..

    27/01/2017 · Carbohydrate storage in man: speculations and some quantitative considerations

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Learn more about non-cyclic forms of carbohydrates.

Insects share with other invertebrates the common pathways of carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Although much has been presumed based on overt similarities to more extensive studies of mammals and other higher taxa, many aspects of intermediary metabolism have been examined in a number of insects and different insect tissues. Much of intermediary metabolism, including synthesis and storage of carbohydrate and fat, takes place in the fat body.
Metabolism and utilization of the glucose disaccharide trehalose as the principal hemolymph or blood sugar is unique to insects and some other invertebrates. First described from an insect by G. R. Wyatt in pupae of the silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus, trehalose, a non-reducing sugar, occurs in many insects at variable but high levels. In lepidopteran insects, trehalose concentrations are commonly between 25 and 100 mM, levels greatly exceeding those of glucose in the blood of mammals. Blood glucose in man typically is about 5 mM, a low value for trehalose in hemolymph. With few exceptions, glucose occurs in insect hemolymph at levels less than 5 mM, and often at less than 1 mM. Trehalose serves multiple functions, as a storage carbohydrate that serves as a fuel for flight and as a cryopro-tectant, protecting insects from damage during overwintering in cold climes. The hemolymph level of trehalose plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate intake and maintaining nutritional home-ostasis. Levels of trehalose in the hemolymph are maintained by a complex interaction of nutrient intake and metabolism.
Trehalose is synthesized in the fat body from two glycolytic intermediates, glucose-1-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The reactions are catalyzed by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase. Sources of glucose for trehalose synthesis include dietary sucrose, glycogen, and gluconeogenesis; dietary sugar being the sole source of glucose under fed conditions. Trehalose formation from glycogen has been described in several insects including the cockroach Periplaneta americana and moth Manduca sexta during starvation. The breakdown of glycogen to glucose is due to activation of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase and is under endocrine control by a neurohormone released from the corpora cardiaca in the brain. Induction of a “hypertrehalosemic” hormone RNA transcript in the central nervous system of the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis, in response to starvation was recently demonstrated. Glucose synthesis, followed by trehalose formation, via gluconeogenesis, has only been reported in M. sexta and was induced when larvae were maintained on low carbohydrate diets. Starvation did not induce gluconeogenesis.
Insects obtain energy principally from aerobic respiration, but many species have some capacity for anaerobic energy metabolism when exposed to hypoxic or anoxic conditions. This is best known in aquatic insects such as midge larvae where the fermentation products may include lactate, ethanol, and acetate. The midge Chaoborus crystallinis accumulates succinate, suggesting that this species is able to use anaerobic respiration for ATP production.

Lipids vs. Carbohydrates for Energy Storage | …

glycolysis The principal metabolic pathway responsible for
oxidation of carbohydrate (glucose) to pyruvate during cellular
respiration.
gluconeogenesis A metabolic pathway responsible for the
net synthesis of carbohydrate (glucose) from amino acids, lactate,
and glycerol.
respiration The collection of metabolic pathways responsible
for the oxidation of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids,
with the production of energy involving an electron transport
chain.
lipid A chemically diverse group of molecules that are insoluble
in water and other polar solvents.
supercooling The absence of freezing at or below the normal
freezing point of water.
metabolome A quantitative metabolite profi le associated
with a cellular process.
The chemical reactions of cells, linked together in series to form pathways, are collectively referred to as metabolism. Metabolic pathways are interdependent and exquisitely regulated for efficient extraction of energy from fuels and for synthesis of biological macro-molecules. Cellular processes produce unique chemical fingerprints or metabolite profiles, and a complete quantitative set of metabolic intermediates associated with a cellular process is referred to as the metabolome. Metabolomics is the study of changes in the metabo-lome that may arise from metabolic regulation or alteration in gene expression, or a combination of both mechanisms. Studies of metabolism and metabolomics are subject areas of biochemistry, which also includes the structural chemistry of biological molecules and the chemistry of molecular genetics.
Metabolic studies with insects have focused on the biochemical bases for the unique physiological capabilities of insects and their arthropod relatives. Early studies considered chemical content, individual chemical reactions, respiration, and metabolic rate. Much of this was discussed in Sir V. B. Wigglesworth’s The Principles of Insect Physiology that first appeared in 1939. With advances, other comprehensive reviews appeared, including D. Gilmour’s 1961 The Metabolism of Insects, the 1964 edition of Physiology of Insecta and in 1978 The Biochemistry of Insects, both edited by M. Rockstein. More recently, insect metabolism was described in several volumes of Comparative Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology, edited by G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert (1985). A recent update is Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, edited by L. I. Gilbert, K. Iatrou, and S. Gill (2005), but the coverage of metabolism is restricted.

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