The fuel can be synthesised in a ..
They can essentially be refueled just like a petrol or diesel ..
molecule it can be synthesised from many ..
By using a combination of the Zero Emission Petrol Vehicle (ZEPV) concept, catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 and methanol to gasoline (MTG) process gasoline can be re-synthesised from recycle CO2.
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Ethanol, C2H5OH, is not a hydrocarbon because it contains oxygen as well as hydrogen and carbon. However, it is a liquid fuel that burns well. Bioethanol is made by fermenting sugars from sugar cane, wheat and other plants. It cannot be used on its own unless the engine is modified. However, modern petrol engines can use petrol containing up to 10 percent ethanol without needing any modifications, and most petrol sold in the UK contains ethanol.
pretty much any petrochemical can be synthesised using ..
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MB - Mercedes Oil specifications
The name of the MB specifications derives from the Mercedes Bluebook scheme, divided by numbered paragraphs and pages. It is used by dealers to identify the products certified by the manufacturer and their correct application on the engines.
For petrol and diesel engines. Minimum quality required ACEA A2/B2 with additional limits on engine.
For petrol and diesel engines. Minimum quality required ACEA A3 / B3 / B4 and MB 229.1. It can only certify 0/ 5 W-x oils.
Multigrade, low SPAsh engine oil, advised for both diesel and petrol engines of Mercedes Benz, Smart and Chrysler. Only low viscosity engine oils which can realize a 1,0% saving on used fuel in the M111 Fuel economy test (CEC L-54-T-96) can get this approval. In this test the fuel savings are compared to the performance of the Reference oil RL 191 (SAE 15W-40).
MB sheet for energy conserving oils for certain car and van engines. Approved oils must meet ACEA A3, B3 and B4 specification and some additional demands by Daimler Chrysler AG. Oil must be on the approval list.
Low SAPS Long Life engine oil for diesel engines with particle filter meeting emission EU-4 -> standards.
FIAT oil specifications
These qualifications define the characteristics to be complied with by the lubricants used in engines with Otto and Diesel cycle for the first time of filling and during service. The standard is formed of a series of tests in the laboratory and on the engine to assess the performance level of lubricants. The laboratory tests qualify the lubricant evaluating the viscosity, cold yield value, tendency to produce foam, corrosion on copper reed, behaviour with rubbers and resistance to oxidisation. The engine tests assess the performance levels of lubricants in terms of sticking rings, deposits on pistons, wear and also oil consumption of certain diesel and petrol engines which are the most representative of Fiat Auto’s most advanced technologies.
Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants granting fuel economy and extended drain.
Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants with standard characteristics.
Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants, granting high performances and high viscosity at high temperatures. OEM recommended product also meets API: SM, ACEA A3-04/B3-04.
Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants granting very high performances.
Qualification for Diesel engine lubricants with standard characteristics.
Qualification for lubricants with extended drain. OEM recommended product also meets ACEA B3-04/B4-04, GM-LL-B-025.
Qualification for lubricants with a very good characteristics for turbocharged engines, Diesel and gasoline, with extended drain. Minimum requirement is ACEA A3/B4-04.
Qualification for Diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, granting fuel economy and extended drain. OEM recommended product is also approved to ACEA C2.
Qualification for Diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, with extended drain. OEM recommended product also meets: ACEA C3-04, MB 229.51 and API: SM/CF.
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Analysis of Lubricants
D91 - 02(2012)
Standard Test Method for Precipitation Number of Lubricating Oils
D94 - 07(2012)
Standard Test Methods for Saponification Number of Petroleum Products
D189 - 06(2010)e1
Standard Test Method for Conradson Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D322 - 97(2012)
Standard Test Method for Gasoline Diluent in Used Gasoline Engine Oils by Distillation
D483 - 04(2009)e1
Standard Test Method for Unsulfonated Residue of Petroleum Plant Spray Oils
D524 - 10
Standard Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D565 - 99(2009)e1
Standard Test Method for Carbonizable Substances in White Mineral Oil
D664 - 11a
Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D892 - 11a
Standard Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D893 - 12
Standard Test Method for Insolubles in Used Lubricating Oils
D974 - 12
Standard Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration
D1093 - 11
Standard Test Method for Acidity of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Their Distillation Residues
D2273 - 08
Standard Test Method for Trace Sediment in Lubricating Oils
D2896 - 11
Standard Test Method for Base Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration
D2982 - 07
Standard Test Methods for Detecting Glycol-Base Antifreeze in Used Lubricating Oils
D3242 - 11
Standard Test Method for Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel
D3339 - 12
Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Semi-Micro Color Indicator Titration
D3607 - 08
Standard Test Method for Removing Volatile Contaminants from Used Engine Oils by Stripping
D4055 - 04(2009)
Standard Test Method for Pentane Insolubles by Membrane Filtration
D4530 - 11
Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon Residue (Micro Method)
D4739 - 11
Standard Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration
D5770 - 11
Standard Test Method for Semiquantitative Micro Determination of Acid Number of Lubricating Oils During Oxidation Testing
D5800 - 10
Standard Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by the Noack Method
D5984 - 11
Standard Test Method for Semi-Quantitative Field Test Method for Base Number in New and Used Lubricants by Color-Indicator Titration
D6082 - 12
Standard Test Method for High Temperature Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D6375 - 09
Standard Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) Noack Method
D7317 - 07
Standard Test Method for Coagulated Pentane Insolubles in Used Lubricating Oils by Paper Filtration (LMOA Method)
D7579 - 09
Standard Test Method for Pyrolysis Solids Content in Pyrolysis Liquids by Filtration of Solids in Methanol
Automotive Gear Lubricants & Fluids
D5579 - 12
Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Thermal Stability of Manual Transmission Lubricants in a Cyclic Durability Test
D5662 - 12
Standard Test Method for Determining Automotive Gear Oil Compatibility with Typical Oil Seal Elastomers
D5704 - 12
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the Thermal and Oxidative Stability of Lubricating Oils Used for Manual Transmissions and Final Drive Axles
D5760 - 09
Standard Specification for Performance of Manual Transmission Gear Lubricants
D6121 - 12
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Lubricants Under Conditions of Low Speed and High Torque Used for Final Hypoid Drive Axles
D7452 - 12
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the Load Carrying Properties of Lubricants Used for Final Drive Axles, Under Conditions of High Speed and Shock Loading
D7603 - 10
Standard Test Method for Determination of Storage Stability and Compatibility in Automotive Gear Oils
Coal and crude oil are resources. They take so long to form that they cannot be replaced once they have all been used up. This means that these fossil fuels are likely to become more expensive as they begin to run out. Petrol, diesel and other fuels produced from crude oil make a range of harmful substances when they are burned, including:
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Bacterial Power Systems - Cronodon
Ferrocene was first prepared unintentionally
BMW 3 Series
Bosch says synthetic carbon neutral fuels could save …
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Bosch says synthetic carbon neutral fuels could ..
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