In 6th Int'l Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality.
In 7th Int’l Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp 181-182, Cambridge, UK, Sep 2008.
Figure 5 - Monitor Based Augmented Reality
The military has been using displays in cockpits that present information to the pilot on the windshield of the cockpit or the visor of their flight helmet. This is a form of augmented reality display. SIMNET, a distributed war games simulation system, is also embracing augmented reality technology. By equipping military personnel with helmet mounted visor displays or a special purpose rangefinder () the activities of other units participating in the exercise can be imaged. While looking at the horizon, for example, the display equipped soldier could see a helicopter rising above the tree line (). This helicopter could be being flown in simulation by another participant. In wartime, the display of the real battlefield scene could be augmented with annotation information or highlighting to emphasize hidden enemy units.
Another application for augmented reality in the medical domain is in ultrasound imaging (). Using an optical see-through display the ultrasound technician can view a volumetric rendered image of the fetus overlaid on the abdomen of the pregnant woman. The image appears as if it were inside of the abdomen and is correctly rendered as the user moves. Information about this prototype system can be found in ().
ARQuake: The Outdoor Augmented Reality Gaming System.
A standard virtual reality system seeks to completely immerse the user in a computer generated environment. This environment is maintained by the system in a frame of reference registered with the computer graphic system that creates the rendering of the virtual world. For this immersion to be effective, the egocentered frame of reference maintained by the user's body and brain must be registered with the virtual world reference. This requires that motions or changes made by the user will result in the appropriate changes in the perceived virtual world. Because the user is looking at a virtual world there is no natural connection between these two reference frames and a connection must be created (). An augmented reality system could be considered the ultimate immersive system. The user can not become more immersed in the real world. The task is to now register the virtual frame of reference with what the user is seeing. As mentioned in , this registration is more critical in an augmented reality system because we are more sensitive to visual misalignments than to the type of vision-kinesthetic errors that might result in a standard virtual reality system. Figure 4 shows the multiple reference frames that must be related in an augmented reality system.
This section will describe the components that make up a typical augmented reality system. Despite the different domains discussed in in which augmented reality systems are being applied, the systems have common subcomponents. This discussion will highlight how augmented reality is an area where multiple technologies blend together into a single system. The fields of computer vision, computer graphics and user interfaces are actively contributing to advances in augmented reality systems.
First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake.
One common theme of this previous work is that all the reference frames are defined in a 3D Euclidean space. To extract this information from the image of the real scene is an error prone process. By relaxing the requirement that all frames have a Euclidean definition it is possible to eliminate the need for this precise calibration and tracking. An approach similar to the one used by the U of R augmented reality system is described by Uenohara and Kanade (). They visually track markers on a 2D surface and use that for registration of the virtual objects. The requires no a priori metric information about the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera, where the user is located in the world or the position of objects in the world. The capacity to operate with no calibration information is achieved by using an affine representation to represent all reference frames.
There has only been a small amount of work that tries to mitigate or eliminate the errors due to tracking and calibration by using image processing of the live video data (; ). A few recent augmented reality systems (; ) neither rely on a method for tracking the position of the camera nor require information about the calibration parameters of that camera. The problem of registering the virtual objects over the live video is solved as a pose estimation problem. By tracking feature points in the video image these systems invert the projection operation performed by the camera and estimate the camera's parameters. This does, however, require knowledge of the Euclidean 3D location of the feature points so that the camera parameters can be estimated in a Euclidean frame. Two of the systems (; ; ; ) use a laser range finder to obtain this 3D data. Requiring the precise location for the feature points places a restriction on what features can be used for tracking returning to a somewhat different calibration problem.
Outdoor Augmented Reality Gaming on Five Dollars a Day.
A Mobile Augmented Reality User Interface for Terrestrial Navigation.
In 4th Int'l Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Vienna, Austria, Oct 2005.
Outdoor Augmented Reality Technology and the Military.
Possession Techniques for Interaction in Real-time Strategy Augmented Reality Games.
That is to say, God really does take on these properties.
Other work in the area of image guided surgery using augmented reality can be found in (; ; ; ; ; ).
Thesis | Augmented Reality | Virtual Reality
Rotterdam is the first city that is available in UAR. Rotterdam is famous for its modern architecture, but let’s not forget the past. Rotterdam doesn’t have many historical architecture left due to the bombardment during WWII, but the UAR makes it all visible again. UAR makes it able to see alternative designs of buildings in their real environment. Or get a sneak preview on the new Rotterdam Central Station.
Augmented Reality Home Pages - Introduction
Urban Augmented Reality (UAR) is the world’s first mobile architecture application featuring augmented reality and 3D models. With UAR you can see the past and the future (things that aren’t even there yet..) of the built environment on your iPhone and Android smartphone. The NAi has set itself an incredible challenge by making the Netherlands the first country in the world to have its entire architecture viewable in augmented reality.
Thesis | Mixed Reality | Augmented Reality
I’m Jacco Ouwerkerk, interactive concepter at IN10 Communication, a creative agency that creates interactive brand, museum and city communication. I’ve been responsible for developing ‘open museum concepts’ like Urban Augmented Reality (UAR) for the (NAi). The Netherlands Architecture Institute is a museum, archive, library and platform that wants to get people of all ages involved in architecture.
Master Thesis Augmented Reality
Q: You chose Augmented Reality as your technology of choice. Can you tell us how you went about making this choice, and why you think it works best for you?
Phd Thesis Augmented Reality - …
Some time ago, Jacco Ouwerkerk contacted me having seen I did with the Museum of London. He directed me towards a hugely exciting Augmented Reality application called UAR – “Urban Augmented Reality” which launched in the Netherlands in June 2010.
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