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This molecule is needed to make glucose in the Calvin cycle.

This stage combines carbon from carbon dioxide in the air and uses the chemical energy in ATP and NADPH to make glucose.

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The energy in ATP is needed for the Calvin cycle.

Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs less commonly in plants than noncyclic photophosphorylation in plants, probably when there is too little NADP+ available. It is also seen in certain photosynthetic bacteria. Cyclic photophosphorylation involves only Photosystem I and generates ATP but not NADPH. As the electrons from the reaction center of Photosystem I are picked up by the electron transport chain, they are transported back to the reaction center chlorophyll. As the electrons are transported down the electron transport chain, some of the energy released is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma of the chloroplast to the thylakoid interior space producing a proton gradient or proton motive force. As the accumulating protons in the thylakoid interior space pass back across the thylakoid membrane to the stroma through ATP synthetase, this energy is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi.

You can follow the Calvin cycle in Figure  as you read about it in this section.

He won a Nobel Prize in 1961 for this important discovery.
In the Calvin cycle, chemical energy in NADPH and ATP from the light reactions is used to make glucose.

NADPH will be used in the Calvin cycle.6.

The 12 3-carbon molecules are converted to higher energy forms using ATP and NADPH3.


Green light is reflected by leaves, which is why plants look green.
There are two parts to photosynthesis:
the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions
Light-dependent reactions:
take place in the thylakoid membrane
require light and water
produce oxygen gas, ATP, and NADPH
Light-independent reactions:
take place in the stroma
also called the Calvin Cycle
requires ATP, NADPH, and CO2
produces high energy sugars
Light-Dependent Reactions
1.

Carbon dioxide diffuses into the plant and along with chemicals in the stroma of the chloroplast and ATP and NADPH, glucose is made and finally, transported around the plant by translocation.

The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert ..

This stage of photosynthesis is also known as the Calvin cycle because its reactions were discovered by a scientist named Melvin Calvin.

It uses chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH (from the light reactions) and carbon dioxide from the air to produce glucose, the molecule that virtually all organisms use for food.

The citric acid cycle [TCA cycle] (oxidative) is one of the main cycles used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy by the oxidation of pyruvate. The rTCA reverses the reactions of the oxidative citric acid cycle. The oxidative TCA is used to generate energy through oxidation of acetate which is derived from different substances like fats, carbohydrates and proteins and procues carbon dioxide and ATP. The reductive citric acid cycle runs in reverse. That means it uses two molecules of carbon dioxide and ATP to generate carbohydrates, fats and proteins from acetyl-CoA. It is used for autotrophic growth ().
The green sulfur bacterium is the first organism where this cycle could be observed by Evans, Buchanan and Arnon 1966 (Arnon-Buchanan Cycle) (). It has also been found in anaerobic and microaerobic bacteria.
There are three reactions of the oxidative citric acid cycle which are known as irreversible (). The establishment of the reverse cycle from an oxidative TCA requires the replacement of three enzymes: The succinate dehydrogenase has to be replaced by the fumarate reductase, the NAD+-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has to be replaced by the ferredoxin-dependent 2-oxoglutarat synthase and the citrate synthase has to be replaced by the ATP citrate lyase. The educt, Acetyl-CoA, of a constructed reverse TCA cycle which is further carboxylated to pyruvate is used by the cell. The electrons needed for the rTCA reactions are donated by ferredoxin and NAD(P)H and requires two ATP to form one pyruvate molecule.
We decided not to work with this cycle because we would have we had to use anaerobic cultivation conditions which we tried to avoid because of a lack of materials and equipment for this purpose.

The remaining G3P molecules use energy from ATP to form RuBP, the five-carbon molecule that started the Calvin cycle.
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    to drive chemical reactions in photosynthesis, ATP loses one phosphate to become ADP, and the NADPH …

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How do ATP and NADPH connect light-dependent and …

Dark reactions make use of these organic energy molecules (ATP and NADPH). This reaction cycle is also called Calvin Benison Cycle, and it occurs in the stroma. ATP provides the energy while NADPH provides the electrons required to fix the CO2 (carbon dioxide) into carbohydrates.







the ATP and NADPH produce in the light ..

The of photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy, producing ATP and NADPH. These reactions occur in the of the . The products of the light-dependent reactions, ATP and NADPH, are both required for the .

2 ATP and 2 NADPH required for each molecule of CO2.

The most common light-dependent reaction in photosynthesis is called noncyclic photophosphorylation. Noncyclic photophosphorylation involves both Photosystem I and Photosystem II and produces ATP and NADPH. During noncyclic photophosphorylation, the generation of ATP is coupled to a one-way flow of electrons from H2O to NADP+.

Atp nadph photosynthesis | voihoterluderytuwanphobardre

Light reactions need light to produce organic energy molecules (ATP and NADPH). They are initiated by colored pigments, mainly green colored chlorophylls.

The electrons and hydrogen ions are used to create ATP and NADPH.

During this stage, light is absorbed and transformed to chemical energy in the bonds of NADPH and ATP.
Steps of the Light ReactionsThe light reactions occur in several steps, all of which take place in the thylakoid membrane, as shown in Figure .

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