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Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: Some Suggestions

How might we develop a more comprehensive theoretical approach to encompass these findings?

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S. D. Krashen, “Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis …

All savvy scientists conduct experiments using the scientific method. This method allows for different observations to take place in order to prove one's theory in regards to the nature of science. It is important that students understand that they must investigate their theory by testing out their hypothesis. Untested theories have no substance in the real world.

What is the calculated value suitable for testing the above hypothesis?


In describing the conceptual basis of a stress intervention method, Emotional Brain Training (EBT), a program which integrates advances in neuroscience and stress physiology, we propose a new paradigm for health care. Many health care treatments focus on managing symptoms of stress-related disorders. In modern society stress is primarily psychological in nature and in its chronic form, the result of (non-homeostatic) neural circuits that amplify and prolong stress. The result is cognitive, emotional, behavioral and physiologic dysregulation resulting in wear and tear (allostatic load). The effectiveness of treating any one stress symptom is likely decreased because of the persistent allostatic state. Emerging understanding of neuroplasticity suggests that this circuitry is capable of change. EBT is based on the repeated use of techniques that mirror secure attachment and optimal self-regulatory processing to alter allostatic circuits through the process of reconsolidation, therefore decreasing allostatic load. This results in an improved state of well-being. We hypothesize that decreased dominance of allostatic neuronal circuits leads to improved health outcomes, offering a new paradigm for health care.

Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: ..

03/12/2017 · On Jan 1, 2004 Stephen Krashen published: Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: Some Suggestions

Conclusion
Applying the principles of positive emotional plasticity to rewiring the stress response is a novel intervention that merits further evaluation. Stress-processing circuitry is formed early in life or during periods of trauma, and stored in implicit memory systems. Excessive and, especially, inappropriate activation of the stress circuitry strengthens maladaptive circuits and can lead to persistent maladaptive (allostatic) brain states. We hypothesize that with the recognition that dominant neurocircuitry can lead to persistent brain states, a new approach can be utilized for health care treatment of stress-related symptoms and diseases. Potentially, providing an indi-vidual with the skills to reconsolidate those stress citcuits, and thus decrease or reverse allostatic load, may improve health and well-being. Therefore, we propose a new paradigm for health care – focusing on rewiring the stress response in favor of adaptive neuroplasticity

The field of linguistics has expanded rapidly in the last 4-5 decades, and research is currently divided into two camps: the sociolinguists and the psycholinguists. Sociolinguists are concerned with how language acquisition occurs in the various situations in which the learner finds him- or herself. Psycholinguists on the other hand are more interested in the cognitive processes that take place when an individual learns a new language (see Ellis, 2009).

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What are Krashen's Hypotheses? Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of six main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis

Anecdotal confirmation of the hypothesis that we get smart by solving problems is provided by the webpage author's son. In the course of playing Pokemon games by himself and with his friends he built up an enormous amount of knowledge about the hundreds of Pokemon characters, their interrelationships, weapons, strength and weaknesses, and so on. Of course, a game is not a problem in the common sense of the word, but it falls within the scope of what Krashen means by problem-solving.

Bilingual models, on the other hand, are founded on the hypothesis that academic proficiency (knowledge, understanding, skills, etc.) acquired in the native language are available to the student when learning takes place in English (see Cummins, 2000). Furthermore, this academic proficiency facilitates the acquisition of English because it helps to make what students hear and read more comprehensible to them. Proponents of bilingual programmes claim that much immersion or English-only instruction is incomprehensible to non-native speakers, who therefore learn neither English nor subject content.

Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: Some Suggestions Stephen Krashen International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching …
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An Introduction to the work of Stephen Krashen

Recent decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of non-native speakers of English in the classrooms of Great Britain, the USA and other English-speaking countries. Educators in this period have been debating how best to meet the special needs of these students. In broad terms there are two opposing approaches: 1. maximize the learner's exposure to English; 2. provide instruction in the mother tongue as well as in English. Krashen is a strong advocate of the second approach, which finds its implementation in one of the forms of bilingual education.

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A further criticism of Krashen's theories is levelled at his repudiation of grammar instruction. Critics claim that some kind of direct focus on grammar is both beneficial and necessary - see Long (1998). Krashen (2003), after a comprehensive analysis of the research data in these two areas, concludes that neither learner output nor grammar focus have any direct influence on acquisition. He states that his hypotheses " .. have not only survived well over the years but have also proven to be useful in other areas of language education. So far, research results remain consistent with these hypotheses and there is no counterevidence."

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We hypothesize that the self-regulatory circuitry that responds to stress and reflects potentiation involves three phases: 1) quick sub-cortical processing phase (responses of the HPA and SMA axes), which is non-specific, evolutionarily based and primarily emotive (based in fear) (34); 2) cortical/cognitive processing of emotions into conscious feelings based on expectations and past experiences – the second phase concludes with the identification of needs; 3) generation of thoughts and actions to marshal a corrective response to meet those perceived needs. The process, if adaptive, returns the person to a state of well-being.

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