Origin of ADPa(denosine) d(i)p(hosphate)
Origin of ADP
Adenosine bonded to two phosphate groups is ADP.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do. It is present in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of every cell, and essentially all the physiological mechanisms that require energy for operation obtain it directly from the stored ATP. (Guyton) As food in the cells is gradually oxidized, the released energy is used to re-form the ATP so that the cell always maintains a supply of this essential molecule. Karp quotes an estimate that more than 2 x 1026 molecules or >160kg of ATP is formed in the human body daily! ATP is remarkable for its ability to enter into many coupled reactions, both those to food to extract energy and with the reactions in other physiological processes to provide energy to them. In animal systems, the ATP can be synthesized in the process of in which there is a net production of two ATP molecules in a cycle. This glycolysis is a major step in . For the glycolysis is also a source of ATP but the more productive process in the tiny energy factories called plays a major role in the production of ATP.
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Photosynthesis, respiration and ATP/ADP are related.
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When they do break they release a considerable amount of energy
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 +6O2
The Making of ATP
ADP + Pi
When the light hits photosytem 2 a pair of electrons is boosted in energy and becomes 'excited'.
Leaves contain chloroplasts, in which photosynthesis occurs.
Light Dependent Reactions
The reactants of cellular respiration are: Oxygen and Glucose (Sugar)
Electron Transport Chain
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in cells
3 Phosphate groups
This happens in the plants chloroplasts
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
This is a process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Equation
The reactants of photosynthesis are: Light, Water, and Carbon dioxide.
Fig. 3: Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis during Photosynthesis
 ADP/ATP : Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate
Origin of ADP
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and the ATP-ADP Cycle
Photosynthesis stores energy, respiration releases it, and ATP is the central molecule in this process.
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and the ATP-ADP Cycle Clovis O
This germination is followed closely by the beginning of the photosynthetic process which we have been studying.
What Produces ADP+P in Photosynthesis? | Yahoo …
Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs less commonly in plants than noncyclic photophosphorylation in plants, probably when there is too little NADP+ available. It is also seen in certain photosynthetic bacteria. Cyclic photophosphorylation involves only Photosystem I and generates ATP but not NADPH. As the electrons from the reaction center of Photosystem I are picked up by the electron transport chain, they are transported back to the reaction center chlorophyll. As the electrons are transported down the electron transport chain, some of the energy released is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma of the chloroplast to the thylakoid interior space producing a proton gradient or proton motive force. As the accumulating protons in the thylakoid interior space pass back across the thylakoid membrane to the stroma through ATP synthetase, this energy is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi.
Photosynthesis, Aerobic Respiration, and the ATP/ADP …
- Glycolysis and Krebs cycle
- Takes place in chlorophyll - containing plant cells during photosynthesis
Roles of ATP
ATP is an immediate energy source due to the instability of the phosphate bonds
ATP is the source of energy for:
- ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction, it provides the energy for the filaments of the muscle to slide past one another and shorten the overall length of the muscle fibre
- ATP molecules fix to myosin heads which cause them to detach from the actin filament at the end of one 'row' movement
ATP provides the energy needed to build up macromolecules from their basic units:
- Polysaccharide synthesis from monosaccharides
- Polypeptide synthesis from amino acids
- DNA/RNA synthesis from nucleotides
- ATP Provides the erngy to change the shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes.
Biology Chapter 8 | Photosynthesis | Adenosine …
Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs less commonly in plants than noncyclic photophosphorylation, most likely occurring when there is too little NADP+ available. It is also seen in certain photosynthetic bacteria. Cyclic photophosphorylation involves only Photosystem I and generates ATP but not NADPH. As the electrons from the reaction center of Photosystem I are picked up by the electron transport chain, they are transported back to the reaction center chlorophyll. As the electrons are transported down the electron transport chain, some of the energy released is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma of the chloroplast to the thylakoid interior space producing a proton gradient or . As the accumulating protons in the thylakoid interior space pass back across the thylakoid membrane to the stroma through ATP synthetase complexes, this energy is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi (see Fig. 4).
Photosynthesis - [PPTX Powerpoint]
2. Meanwhile, photons are also being absorbed by pigment molecules in the antenna complex of Photosystem I and excited electrons from the reaction center are picked up by the primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem I electron transport chain. The electrons being lost by the P700 chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction centers of Photosystem I are replaced by the electrons traveling down the Photosystem II electron transport chain. The electrons transported down the Photosystem I electron transport chain combine with 2H+ from the surrounding medium and NADP+ to produce NADPH + H+ (see Fig. 2 above).
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