Athletes and Protein Intake - Today's Dietitian Magazine
13/01/2018 · June 2014 Issue
8 Health Benefits of Eating More Protein Foods - Dr. Axe
How Much Is Enough?
While it’s generally accepted that athletes need more protein than sedentary people, recommendations vary significantly depending on the type of athlete, current body weight, total energy intake, whether weight loss or weight gain is the goal, exercise intensity and duration, training status, the quality of the dietary protein, and the individual’s age.2 The general rule of thumb is 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg of body weight for endurance athletes and 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg of body weight for strength and power athletes, says Christopher Mohr, PhD, RD, a nutrition consultant and writer and the co-owner of Mohr Results, a weight-loss company in Louisville, Kentucky. The greater the number of hours in training and the higher the intensity, the more protein is required.2 Other research has recommended as much as 2 g/kg of body weight to prevent muscle loss in athletes who have reduced their energy intake.3,4
A study recently published in the Journal of Nutrition found that muscle protein synthesis was 25% higher when protein was evenly distributed across breakfast, lunch, and dinner compared with a more typical pattern, when most protein was consumed at the evening meal, even when total protein intake was the same.12 Protein that’s evenly distributed throughout the day may be especially important for older, physically active adults, as older individuals experience a resistance to muscle protein synthesis in response to meals containing less protein; in other words, the protein threshold to trigger muscle protein synthesis is higher in older individuals.12
Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
Since added protein intake is critical for athletes and physically active people, should they consume a high-protein diet? Instead of recommending protein as grams per kilogram of body weight, the Institute of Medicine established an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for protein at 10% to 35% of total calories for adults older than 18.1 The Institute of Medicine defines the acceptable macronutrient distribution range as a range of intake associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. The average protein intake in the United States of 15% of total calories is well within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range but well below recommended intakes for most athletes. 1,13 Even the 95th percentile of protein intake for US adults doesn’t come close to the highest acceptable macronutrient distribution range for protein at 35% of total calories.14 Higher intakes of high-quality protein recommended for athletes would still be well within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range.14
When beginning endurance training, nitrogen balance may be negative for the first two weeks, and protein requirements may be higher in the first week of strength training to support new muscle growth. After one to two weeks of training, however, typically the body adapts and the protein utilization decreases. In general, adequate calorie and carbohydrate intake reduces the need for amino acid oxidation for energy and spares dietary protein and muscle tissue. Protein sparing is based on the concept that if adequate energy is consumed from carbohydrate and fat then dietary protein is available for protein-unique functions (ie, protein synthesis [tissue, hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, etc]). To protect muscle protein, consider counseling athletes to temporarily increase protein intake when starting a new training program or entering a new training phase.2
Vitamin D — Health Professional Fact Sheet
Synthetic B12 found in supplements and fortified foods appears to be the best form. Though naturally occurring B12 is present in protein foods of animal origin, it may not be equal in its effectiveness in raising serum B12 levels. In a large population-based study, total intake of B12—particularly from milk and fish—were better than meat and eggs in increasing blood levels.8 Dairy foods especially appear to provide a highly bioavailable source of the vitamin. Vitamin B12 in meat may be less bioavailable due to losses during cooking and the presence of collagen, which isn’t digested as well with decreased gastric secretion.
The majority of protein is digested, and the amino acids not used for gut fuel are metabolized in the intestinal mucosal cells and transported by the portal vein to the liver for protein synthesis or gluconeogenesis.12 In the liver, nonessential amino acids are largely deaminated, and the amino group (nitrogen) removed is converted into urea for excretion in the urine.13 It has been shown that in subjects without and with mild type 2 diabetes, ~5070% of a 50-g protein meal is accounted for over an 8-hour period by deamination in the liver and intestine and synthesis to urea.14 It has been assumed that the remaining carbon skeletons from the nonessential amino acids are available for glucose synthesis, which would then enter into the general circulation.
Very few foods in nature contain vitamin D
Vitamin B12 — Health Professional Fact Sheet
11/02/2016 · * Adequate Intake
You Don't Need Large Amounts Of Protein To Build Muscle
C-reactive protein (CRP) a protein that is produced in the liver in response to inflammation
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Reference Range, …
Many experts believe the current RDA for vitamin B12 is too low. Data suggests daily intake between 6 and 10 mcg better ensures acceptable B12 concentrations in people with adequate vitamin B12 status and absorption.8 Those taking various medications, namely metformin; proton-pump inhibitors, such as Prilosec; or H2 receptor antagonists, such as Pepcid, may need more vitamin B12 due to these drugs’ ability to interfere with B12 absorption.
Protein Controversies in Diabetes
It stands to reason then that athletes and active individuals would require more protein, and high-quality proteins, on a daily basis than those who spend their days sitting at a desk in front of a computer screen. (High-quality proteins contain all nine essential amino acids in amounts similar to amino acid requirements; animal proteins are higher quality than plant proteins.) While adequate high-quality protein is critical for good health and optimal athletic performance, the amount needed isn’t the one-size-fits-all recommendation the RDA suggests.
Biotin | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
What about the recreational athlete, otherwise known as the weekend warrior? “The research shows that most people would benefit from added protein, from increased satiety to increased muscle synthesis,” Mohr says. “People generally consume only around 15% to 16% of total calories as protein, so there’s certainly room to increase protein intake.” Some have suggested that recreational athletes should aim for daily intakes closer to 1.1 to 1.4 g/kg of body weight per day, 38% to 75% greater than the current RDA.2 Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, should be in the range of 1.2 to 2 g/kg of body weight, and strength athletes, such as weight lifters, should be in the range of 1.4 to 2 g/kg of body weight.2
You're Not Eating Nearly Enough Protein - Men's Fitness
Dietary proteins are in a constant state of flux in the body, being broken down into amino acids, transformed into other compounds, and sometimes reassembled into other proteins. They also are used for energy, a mechanism that increases when energy intake is low or when protein intake is inadequate. Muscle protein then becomes a source of energy, resulting in a negative nitrogen balance. This is a critical concern for athletes, who are regularly involved in energy-demanding activities.
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