lights that can be used to drive photosynthesis ..
the phase of photosynthesis in which chemical energy captured in the light rxns is used to drive the ..
• Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy used in photosynthesis
. Lenses can be used to make eyeglasses, telescopes, or microscopes in order to extend what can be seen. The design of such instruments is based on understanding how the path of light bends at the surface of a lens.
Photosynthesis is the process used by plants to convert electromagnetic radiation – light – into chemical energy that is used for growth and development. All that is needed for this process is carbon dioxide (CO2), nutrients, and water. The process itself is not particularly efficient; only 4 to 6 percent of the absorbed radiation is converted into chemical energy (Zhu et al. 2010, Table 2). Still, it is the engine that drives most life on this planet.
Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet
Any object emits a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that depends on its temperature. In addition, atoms of each element emit and preferentially absorb characteristic frequencies of light. These spectral lines allow identification of the presence of the element, even in microscopic quantities or for remote objects, such as a star. Nuclear transitions that emit or absorb gamma radiation also have distinctive gamma ray wavelengths, a phenomenon that can be used to identify and trace specific radioactive isotopes.
Far worse yet would be the cheaper no name emitters used by manufacturers such as BaiSheng, Epistar, & others sold under a plethora of other names for so-called aquarium use. These use daylight emitters that can vary widely in Kelvin Color output from only 2000K to 6500K and are in reality generally much less efficient for photosynthetic aquarium life use other than just plain light!
Think about why a CFL 10,000K daylight is so much different and more expensive than a common household CFL sold in hardware stores, or the many decorative LED aquarium lights or even those for home or flashlight use. Try using one of these to grow your delicate coral or plants (the answer is they will not without use of many). This is the reason most LED aquarium lights were not adequate for supporting life properly until about 2008-9.
-potential energy released is used by the mitochondrion to ..
I earlier compared people from different epochs. That stone tool Tesla what his/her invention would lead to a half-million years later, and members of the founding group could not have comprehended . Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into Rome in 100 CE or London in 1500 CE. History has some relevant examples. When , about the last of his people, came out of hiding in his dying world and strode into civilization, it caused a sensation. He soon died of tuberculosis, but his encounters with civilization were recorded. He attended an opera, and the popular account portrayed his rapport with the diva, but Ishi actually stared in amazement at the , as he had never before seen so many people in one place. When he saw an airplane in flight, he laughed in amazement. Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into imperial Rome. That hunter-gatherer had probably seen dogs, but horses, cows, sheep, and the like would have been astounding, and watching a horse or ox pull a cart would have been stunning. Crops would have been an amazing sight. Imagine that hunter-gatherer at the . The building and crowd alone would have boggled his mind, even if the festivities might have been horrifically familiar. Metals and glass would have seemed magical. Writing had not yet been invented in that hunter-gatherer’s world, so even the concept would have been difficult. Imagine him trying to learn math. There were no more singing and dancing religious rituals, and no wide-open spaces to hunt a meal. Imagine that hunter-gatherer visiting a Roman bath. Hot water alone would have been surreal, while the cavorting might have been delightful. What would his reaction have been to Rome’s markets? Rome was also loud and could be hellish, so the hunter-gatherer might have longed to flee to the countryside before long, but the countryside would have little resembled the one he knew. He obviously would not have understood anything that anybody said, but they were also all members of , so he would have seen many behaviors and traits that he eventually understood. But how long would his shock have lasted? Could he have really ever adapted to Roman society (if he did not quickly end up on the arena’s stage as a novelty)? Another surprise for that hunter-gatherer would be seeing people interact who did not know each other. People were interacting with members and not trying to kill them on sight, which became standard behavior in most hunter-gatherer societies that battled over territory (their food supply). Civilized life was all made possible by the local and stable energy source that agriculture provided, which led to an epoch that changed very little until the next energy source was tapped: the hydrocarbon energy that powered the Industrial Revolution. The next chapter will survey the developments that led to that momentous event. It is the only Epochal Event with historical documentation that showed how it developed, which is easier to reconstruct than examining stones and bones.
Just as the reason why our may have and why may have , that founder group may well as an act of desperation, driven to the margins by their neighbors. If they left about 60-50 kya, as seems the most likely timeframe in light of today’s evidence, by 10 kya the entire planet had been conquered. Behaviorally modern humans were atop all terrestrial food chains outside of Africa, and in Africa megafauna avoided them, so there was nothing on Earth that threatened human existence except for other humans. Like the way in which the australopithecine Tesla who made the first stone tool the that emerged from his/her act a half-million years later, by 10 kya (about a tenth as long as the previous epochal innovative interval). Several million descendants of that founder group were spread across the planet, from tundra to desert to rainforest, and they filled all inhabitable continents. The people existing 10 kya would have been anatomically recognizable and all had , as they do today. However, with , versus what the founders left Africa with (several million people versus ), the immensely diverse climates and the tools used to survive in them, as well as their mutually unintelligible languages, the founder group’s members would not have comprehended a tour of their descendants’ world. The founder’s descendants even began to look different as evolution marched onward, and many racial differences would have been noticeable, although the bizarre had yet to appear in . Some people of 10 kya even had companions called (first domesticated as long as 33 kya, wolves were domesticated more than once, and the modern dog was domesticated about 15 kya), which would have seemed a miracle, terror, or strange beyond imagining. The world’s large animals paid the ultimate price for fueling that expansion, and the thus began.
that absorbs light energy used to ..
The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
Chlorophyll a absorbs light in the blue ..
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absorbs the red light and most of the ..
It's the chlorophyl that converts the sunlight to nutrients the plant then uses.
by the chlorophyll and used to drive most of photosynthesis.
In my opinion this is one of the most profound recent developments for aquarium reef LED lighting of late, as ALL other emitters used are either exact bins used for multiple generic applications or in the case of many licensed Cree emitters use emitter bins that are tweaked for aquarium use.
While this Osram Olson NP Blue is a SPECIFIC emitter designed for the PAR requirements of many if not most light sensitive reef inhabitants.
It is currently used in the AAP/AquaRay AquaBeam Ocean Blue NP 1500, AquaBeam Coral Colour Plus 1500, and in the more focused AquaBeam Reef White 2000 Fixture
Photosynthesis BIO 311C Flashcards | Quizlet
As well is best used for controlling the dimming of these emitters so there is no change to the spectral output as opposed to using "current reduction" (aka linear or analog reduction) used by many (most) brands of LED fixtures of which the result again is less than optimal PUR and wasted energy as heat instead of light energy.
The over all result is lesser quality light energy from these LED lights that employ dozens of emitters, poor drivers, and current reduction controllers.
when the chlorophyll absorbs light, ..
The newer Halogen Quartz Iodide (HQI) lighting systems are used mostly on saltwater reef aquariums. HQI bulbs are commonly offered with spectrums of 10,000K and 20,000K. These high-intensity bulbs help corals thrive, but give off less heat than regular metal halide bulbs. HQI Double Ended Metal Halide bulbs have been used in Europe for many years have gained popularity in the U.S. among aquarium hobbyists in the last several years.
Double Ended MH HQI bulbs offer many of the same features as standard mogul base Metal Halide bulbs but are designed differently. These bulbs are much smaller than mogul base screw in Metal Halides and are double ended.
The benefits of using HQI Metal Halide bulbs are that they offer a more clean color spectrum (useful light energy/responsive wavelength), are more efficient, produce slightly less heat, and last longer than standard Mogul Base metal halide lamps.
Why the rate of Photosynthesis is higher in red light …
All electromagnetic radiation travels through a vacuum at the same speed, called the speed of light. Its speed in any given medium depends on its wavelength and the properties of that medium. At the surface between two media, like any wave, light can be reflected, refracted (its path bent), or absorbed. What occurs depends on properties of the surface and the wavelength of the light. When shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) is absorbed in matter, it can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. However, because X-rays can travel through soft body matter for some distance but are more rapidly absorbed by denser matter, particularly bone, they are useful for medical imaging. Photovoltaic materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency. This phenomenon is used in barcode scanners and “electric eye” systems, as well as in solar cells. It is best explained using a particle model of light.
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