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Digital sound synthesis of string ..

A sound synthesis algorithm for the harpsichord has been developed byapplying the principles of digital waveguide modeling.

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audio recording software – computer programs used with various pieces of hardware to , , , , and store . The combination of the software and hardware is called a digital audio workstation (DAW). A list of such programs can be found at the entry.

audio restoration (AR) – the process of removing , , , , and other from an . Although it was originally developed to clean up vintage recordings, it is often applied to current audio files. See also .

audio signal – an representation of , usually as an electrical , or a representation, that can be stored in an . Audio signals are usually produced by a , such as a , instrument , , or or they may be synthesized. Audio signals are converted back into sound using or . Also called a .

audio signal processing – see .

audio signal processor – see .

audio silence – a diagnostic made with the in , but with all down, providing a means to measure the and/or .

audio snake – see .

audio source – (1) The origin of an , such as the from a , , or other device, that is the input to a on a , , , or . See also . (2) A switch on some that selects between between the signal from the tape and the signal originating at the input (the source).

Douglas Kahn, Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts (MIT Press, 2001), p

but Never say Never 52-55HINTS: Soldering Taps onto a Coil 70-70HINTS: Using a Coaxial Stub to shift Antenna-System Resonance 70-71HISTORY: OLD RADIO: Monitoring the Monitors 93-94INFO: End of an Era: FCC Drops Morse Testing Requirement 79-80PROJECT: The FCC-2 Frequency Synthesizer 31-35PROJECT: Audio Readout for the -209 Antenna Analyzer 36-39REVIEW: Short Takes: 20-Meter End-Fed Dipole Antenna 58-58REVIEW: FT-2000 HF and 6 Meter Transceiver 72-78TEACHING: Hands-On Radio Experiment #49-Reading and Drawing Schematics 64-65TEACHING: Getting to Know Your Radio, Dual Receivers-When 1 is Not Enough61-62TEACHING: I Know What's Happening at the Shack-What's Happening at the 63-63TECH: A Simple Bluetooth Radio Interface 66-69February 2007*January 2007ANTENNA: A Two Element "Wonder Bar" Beam for 17 Meters 34-36ANTENNA: Wire Antennas - Keeping Them Up 60-60ARES: Public Service: Creates Emergency Database 77-78HINTS: Antenna Analyzer on/off switch (protection) 62-62HINTS: Cigarette Lighter Adapters, home made with 3/4" copper pipe 62-62HISTORY: The Golden Anniversary of the Collins KWM-1 42-45HISTORY: How the FCC Helped to End World War II 46-48HISTORY: OLD RADIO: The 1926 Grebe CR-18 90-91KE3FL: Field Org Reports: 92 92-92NEW: Set Society Crystal Radio Kit 71-71PROJECT: A Simple Add-On RF Stage for Regenerative Receivers 28-30PROJECT: High Sensitivity Crystal Set, ..use zero-volt-threshold MOSFET 31-33PROJECT: Old Amplifiers--Boat Anchors or Bargain Basement Opportunities?37-41PROJECT: RF Activated Timer, build this & stop timing out your repeater 54-55PROJECT: Simple Audio Computer to Transmitter Morse Keyer 58-59REVIEW: IC-R2500 Communications Receiver 63-67REVIEW: Crystal Radio Receiver Kit 67-68REVIEW: -1164 AC Line Filter 68-69SHORTAKES: Coax Crimper, for PL-259s 53-53SOFTWARE -the Road to CW Speed 200 WPM 83-83TEACHING: Hands-On Radio Experiment #48--Baluns 56-57TECH: How to get your Electric Utility to fix Nocturnal RF Noise 79-71TECH: Another Power Lince Noise Hunting Idea 71-71TECH: Eclectic Technology, An Alternative?

On 15 June 2016 Sound On Sound launched our new website

Some pale gleams from the past; a historical perspective on early speechsynthesis and scramblers, and the foundations of digital audio.

active – (1) Using or external in devices, such , , or . (2) Contributing and involved, such as an .

active balanced output – see .

active circuit – an that contains , such as , , or , which require a , as opposed to a , which has no active components.

active combining Amplifier – see .

active combining network – see .

active component – (1) A device that has the ability to a or produce a in power. Active components increase , , or and are powered by a that is separate from the electrical signal. Examples of active components include , , and . include and . (2) In a , things that require electrical power to operate, such as the power supply, fans, storage devices, transistors, and integrated circuits. Passive components include the , capacitors, and enclosures.

active crossover – see .

active filter – a that uses an , so that it can as well as a . Active filters can be constructed of smaller, less expensive than . The disadvantage is that they require external power, require more parts, and introduce a small amount of .

active loudspeaker – a that has a built-in and requires no external . Compare with .

active microphone – see .

active monitor – a that has a built in and requires no external . Compare with .

active noise cancellation – see .

active noise control – see .

active noise reduction – see .

active ribbon microphone – a with a built-in . Because a standard has a much lower output than other microphone types, it is convenient to use an active ribbon to boost the signal by 5 to 10 dB. Such microphones require to supply the preamp.

active sensing – a system used to verify that a connection is functioning, consisting of sending a to a MIDI device, and if no response is received within a specified period (typically 300 ms), all notes are switched off preventing notes from hanging when communication is lost. Active sensing is supported by only a few MIDI devices.

active speaker – see .

actual sound – see .

acuity – the ability to hear very soft sounds or to distinguish the subtle qualities of a sound.

A-curve – see .

A/D – Analog-to-Digital. See . Also written as , or A-to-D.

– a musical term indicating a slow and leisurely , typically 55 to 76 bpm. See .

– a musical term indicating a rather slow , typically 65 to 76 bpm. See .

– a musical term indicating a very slow and calm , slower than , typically 40 to 52 bpm. See .

ADAM® – Akai Digital Audio Multitrack. A 12-track , developed by , that used tape. It recorded using 16 bits at a of 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz. Sometimes written .

adapter – (1) A that enables two otherwise incompatible connectors to connect, such as an adapter that converts a to a plug. (2) An electrical plug that has provides two or three outlets. Usually called a . (3) A . Sometimes spelled .

adaptive bitrate streaming – a technique used for over the . It works by detecting a user's and capacity in real time and adjusting the quality of the stream accordingly. The technique provides the highest possible bit rate that will not cause stalls or buffering during playback. Techniques include (DASH), (HLS), (HDS), and .

ADAT® – (1) Alesis Digital Audio Tape. A trademark of originally used for their eight- . (2) Short for .

ADAT DOI – ADAT Digital Optical Interface. The digital communication standard designed by that uses an (which Alesis calls a ) to transfer signals between units. This system has since been adopted by other manufacturers as a means of transferring between various types of audio devices. It is capable of transmitting eight of digital audio with of 44.1 kHz and 24-bit on a single cable, or four channels at 96 kHz. Also known as and often simply called for short. See also , , and .

ADAT/FST – ADAT/File Streaming Technology. ADAT/FST is a protocol developed by for their HD24 24- . Instead of using typical FAT-32 or HFS hard drive formatting, Alesis developed a method to record data in a manner in which all the data for a recorded track remains together in associated clusters and does not become fragmented or separated from related data.

ADC – (1) . (2) .

add-in – see .

AD converter – . Also written as or .

additive flanging – in which the is added to the signal, as opposed subtractive flanging which subtracts the delayed signal from the dry signal (or adds a signal that is 180° ). While the results of these two opposite operations can be similar, it can dramatically change the character of the sound depending on the content and in the signal. Subtractive flanging tends to be more pronounced than additive flanging. Additive and subtractive flanging are sometimes called and , respectively.

additive synthesis – a method of (creating a sound with a ) by adding elementary to create more complex waveforms. See also , and .

AD/DA converter – (1) A term referring to both and . (2) A converter that does both analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion. Sometimes shown as , or .

ADR – .

ADSR – , , , . These elements define the sounds (or ) generated by a keyboard instrument or synthesizer. See also .

ADT – or .

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) – a method of and developed by , , , , and . It is designed to achieve better sound quality than MP3 at similar and file sizes. AAC has been made part of the and specifications. There are several types (profiles) of AAC encoding used for various applications, which are usually automatically selected by the encoder based on encoding options: AAC-LC (Low Complexity) profile, which is suitable for higher compression ratios, AAC-LD (Low Delay) profile which optimizes playback speed, used for real-time applications such as telephones, and (High Efficiency) profile, which has enhanced features.

Advanced Video Coding (AVC) – a standard based on motion-compensation used for the and distribution of video content, supporting up to 4096 × 2304, including . Also known as , or . See also (HEVC).

Advent Corporation – a consumer electronics company founded by Henry Kloss in 1967. It manufactured , , , and other electronic devices. In 1981, long after Kloss had left Advent, the company went into bankruptcy, and it was acquired by Jensen Electronics. In 2004, Jensen was acquired by Audiovox, which became in 2012.

Aeolian mode – one of the seven musical or with the interval pattern of tone-semitone-tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone. This is also known as the natural .

aerial – see .

aeroacoustics – the study of the generation and transmittance of sound by fluid flow or the study of aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces.

aerophone – a classifications for musical in which a vibrating mass of air produces the initial sound according to the system of musical instrument classification. This classification includes , , and , as well as instruments that fall into none of these groups. The other four classifications are , , , and .

AES – .

AES3 – a professional audio standard for an developed jointly by the (AES) and the (EBU), formerly known as AES/EBU. The standard provides the technical details for transmitting via a . There are three types of connection in common use: (a) Type I - Balanced XLR, (b) Type II - Unbalanced RCA, and (c) Type III - Optical. Type I connections use , 3-conductor, 110-ohm cables with connectors, typically used in professional installations. They are considered the AES3 standard connector. Type II connections use , 2-conductor, 75-ohm with , typically used in consumer audio installations. They are known as connections. Type III use , commonly known as cables. Type III optical connections are used in both professional and consumer audio equipment. They are also known as connections.

AES3id – a subset of the (AES/EBU) standard with different hardware requirements. While AES3 specifies 110-ohm connections, AES3id specifies 75-ohm connections, the same as as connections, except AES3id usually uses connections rather than . The data contained in the transmission using both formats are identical.

AES3-MIC – a that conforms to the digital interface standard.

AES10 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines the (MADI). MADI can carry either 56 or 64 on a single or connection. The AES10 standard has features in common with the two-channel interface.

AES11 – a standard established by the (AES) for the of . AES11 recommends using a specific form of an signal to distribute audio within a facility, a connection referred to as a (DARS).

AES17 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines a method of evaluating the performance of and .

AES31 – a standard established by the (AES) for the interchange of audio projects between different systems, especially audio editing projects between . The standard is divided into three parts. Part 1 specifies the disk format. Part 2 defines the file format. Part 3 defines a standard for .

AES42 – an extension of the (AES/EBU) standard to and includes the ability to transmit and receive data along with the . The audio information is carried as AES3 data, while a modulated 10-volt supply conveys remote control and data. This data provides the ability to remotely control parameters, such as , , , , , and , as well as feedback about signal levels and the status of the mic.

AES47 – a standard established by the as a standardized method for packing professional audio streams over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks.

AES51 – a standard established by that specifies a method of carrying Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells over for use with to carry audio transport structure. The purpose of this is to provide an open standarid, Ethernet-based approach to the networking of linear () digital audio with extremely high quality-of-service along with standard Internet Protocol connections.

AES59 – a specification established by for 25-pin used for connections or for multi-channel (AES/EBU) connections. Currently there are primarily two D-Sub wiring methods: (a) TASCAM, used by , , , , and others, and (b) Yamaha, used by , , Mackie, , , and others. Since these two are not compatible, this standard (which uses the TASCAM pin out) was created to standardize D-Sub pinouts.

AES67 – a standard established by for (AoIP) and (AoE) interoperability. It specifies a baseline set of protocols to enable synchronized audio connectivity between AoIP and AoE using various using various audio systems, such as standards for , quality of service, and methods to bridge between different AoIP implementations.

AES70 – a standard established by for Open Control Architecture (OCA), a communications protocol, originally proposed by the OCA Alliance in January 2016, to control, monitor, and manage connections of media (networked and devices). It allows for the creation and deletion of signal paths, access control, control of processing, and firmware updates. Control can be via wired or . OCA is an open standard that requires no licenses, fees, or memberships.

AESC – American Engineering Standards Committee. See (ANSI).

AES/EBU interface – see .

AES II – refers to an Type II connector.

AES standards – standards established by the for use in the audio industry. Some of those standards are listed above. Others can be found on the page of their website.

aftertouch – a message for the amount of pressure applied to a when it is pressed down. See also .

AF – (1) Audio Frequencies. See . (2) Alternate Frequency. See

ASSAMESE LANGUAGE One of 22 Offical Languages of India

61-61REVIEW: Yaesu FT-8800R Dual-Band FM Transceiver, $366 62-65REVIEW: A Look as Some High-End Antenna Analyzers 65-69SOFTWARE Weather Display , $70 54-54TEACHING: Hands-On Radio Experiment #28: The Common Base Amplifier 58-59TECH: Beyond the VOM, Test Equipment for the Ham Shack 36-39TECH: Learning to Love Toroids 55-55TECH: What Can you Do with IRLP, web site: 56-57UHF/VHF: Microwavelengths, Home Station--Part 3 87-88May 2005*April 2005ANTENNA: An Efficient Tuner for Small 160 Meter Verticals 28-30ANTENNA: A Portable Masting System for Emergency Use 36-37ANTENNA: A Low-Cost Remote Antenna Switch 38-41ANTENNA: KU4AB 2-Meter and 70-cm Antennas (Short Takes) 58-58DIGITAL: Am Improved Digital Communication Interface 31-35HINTS: An Alternative Homebrew IAMBIC Key 65-66PRODUCTS: SDR-1000 Software-Defined HF/VHF Transceiver, 75-78PRODUCTS: Elecraft XG1 Receiver Test Oscillator 78-79QRP: QRPpp on VHF (The World ABove 50 MHz) 89-91TEACHING: Hands-On Radio Experiment #27: Scope Tricks 63-64TECH: Passband Tuning (Getting to know your Radio) 56-57TECH: Schematic Symbols Used in ARRL Circuit Diagrams (HELP DESK) 59-59TECH: The WudeeSay: Instant Replay for Your Transceiver 60-62April 2005*March 2005ANTENNA: A Backpacker's Delight--The Folding J-Pole 31-33ANTENNA: A 3 1/2 Band Yagi 10/15/20 & some "backwards" coverage of 12m 34-37FOX: A Miniature UHF Fox Transmitter 28-30HINTS: RF Ground--Four Stories Up 53-53HINTS: A Strong, Flexible Mobile Antenna Installation 53-55HISTORY: OLD RADIO: M.

alto clef – the symbol on a music staff indicating that the third line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of middle C. It is one of five and is used primarily for writing music for the viola. Also called a .

AM – .

AM band – see .

ambience – (1) The sound that comes from the surrounding environment as opposed to coming directly from the sound source. (2) . See also . Not to be confused with , which means the atmosphere or mood of a particular environment.

ambience extraction – a method of removing information from a two-channel and using it to created . David Hafler developed one of the early systems of ambience extraction in the early 1960s, with a process he called Dynaquad, marketed by Hafler's company, . A few years later, Peter Scheiber patented a similar system that competed with in the early 1970s. cited several of Scheiber's patents when it developed the system. Also called , and .

ambience synthesis – a method of digitally synthesizing from information in a two-channel . Although similar in concept to , it uses digital technology and handles the data differently.

ambience track – the of the sets and locations in which a scene was shot recorded by the to be used in the final mix of a or production, used to make sure the background noise is consistent, without any unnatural changes.

ambient – (1) Pertainging to the surrounding environment. (2) A type of instrumental music designed to enhance the mood or atmosphere or induce calmness.

ambient audio – see .

ambient field – the area away from the sound source where the are greater than at the sound source. Also called .

ambient miking – placing a at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . Sometimes spelled . See also .

ambient microphone – a placed at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . This sound is often mixed with a mic close to the source (called a or ) to add , , or special effects or to improve . Sometimes called a , or for short.

ambient noise – see .

ambient sound – the that are present in a scene or , such as wind, water, crowds, and traffic. Ambient sounds are important in and work because they provide audio continuity between shots, they prevent unnatural silence when there is no other sound, and they can be used to establish a mood. Also called , or . See also .

ambient sound level – the due to at a given location, usually measured in dB relative to a reference pressure of 20 μPa (the ). The ambient sound level is measured with a , frequently using , in which case the measurements are specified in . Also called , or .

ambiophony – see .

Ambisonics – various recording and playback techniques, developed in the UK in the 1970s by the British , that use technology to create a variety of effects. The sound data can be and to produce a 2-dimensional (horizontal-only) or 3-dimensional (full-sphere) sound field. Unlike other surround sound formats, Ambisonics is not encoded into signals for specific , but contains representations of the sound field, called the B-format (see ), that includes source directions instead of speaker positions. This technique allows for the signal to be decoded specifically for the speaker setup at a given location or venue, allowing for a considerable amount of flexibility in the number of speakers and their position. Until recently Ambisonics has not been much of a commercial success, but with the advent of more powerful (as opposed to the used in the early years), interest in Ambisonics hs been increasing since the 1990s. See also .

AM broadcaster – a company or that its on the .

AM broadcasting – the of using .

American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) – a non-profit trade organization serving the independent music community by representing their interests in the marketplace, in the media, and in government affairs.

American Broadcasting Company (ABC) – a commercial US headquartered in New York City, NY, and owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. ABC originated in 1943 as a network when Edward J. Noble, owner of Life Savers candy and Rexall Drugs, purchased the Blue Network after the FCC ordered to divest its ownership. The following year, Noble acquired the rights to the name American Broadcasting Company and began using the name American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., for the parent corporation. ABC launched its television network in 1948. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. ABC merged with Capital Cities Communications in 1986. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. In 2007, it sold the radio portion of the business to Citadel Broadcasting, becoming almost exclusively a television network.

American Federation of Musicians (AFM) – a union of performing artists and musicians. AFM membership guarantees that musicians will be paid at the minimum rate established by the union (union scale). Signatory companies (those having signed an agreement with AFM) can only hire union musicians and must pay union scale.

American Graphophone Company – a company founded in 1887 and licensed by the Volta Graphophone Company to manufacture the . The was founded in 1889 to sell the products manufactured by the American Graphophone Company. In 1895, the American Graphophone Company merged with the Columbia Phonograph Company, with the former conducting research and manufacturing and the latter managing marketing, sales, and distribution. The American Graphophone Company continued the manufacturer of Columbia products until 1916, when it was reorganized as the Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company.

American Loudspeaker Manufacturers Association (ALMA) – an international trade organization for companies that design, manufacture, sell, and test components and systems.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary standards for products, services, systems, processes, and personnel in the United States. It began as a joint effort to avoid creating conflicting standards when in 1918 six along with the the US departments of commerce, war, and the navy established the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC). In 1928, it became the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966, they reorganized and became the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). The current name was adopted in 1969.

American standard pitch notation – see .

American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) – see .

American Wire Gauge (AWG) – a set of standards used for measuring and specifying non-ferrous wire conductor sizes (diameters), used primarily in the US and Canada. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter. AWG is used only for non-ferrous wire used to conduct electricity, such as copper and aluminum. Steel wire uses a different gauge (the Washburn & Moen Gauge, which is also called the American Steel and Wire Gauge, or Steel Wire Gauge for short). AWG is also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge. Household wiring typically is 12 or 14 gauge, whereas studio and audio wiring is usually in the range of 16 to 22. Some diameters for a sampling of AWG values is shown below:

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